Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock in Protected Area: A Case Study of Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.64827

Arief Darmawan(1*), Zulfira Warta(2), Elis Molidena(3), Alexandra Valla(4), Muhammad Iqbal Firdaus(5), Gunardi Djoko Winarno(6), Bondan Winarno(7), Teddy Rusolono(8), Satoshi Tsuyuki(9)

(1) Department of Forestry, Lampung University, Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, 35145 
(2) WWF Indonesia, Graha Simatupang Tower 2, Jakarta Indonesia, 12430
(3) WWF Indonesia, Graha Simatupang Tower 2, Jakarta Indonesia, 12430
(4) WWF Indonesia, Graha Simatupang Tower 2, Jakarta Indonesia, 12430
(5) WWF Indonesia, Graha Simatupang Tower 2, Jakarta Indonesia, 12430
(6) Department of Forestry, Lampung University, Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No.1, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia, 35145
(7) Forest Research and Development Center, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Jln.Gunung Batu No.5 Bogor, 16119
(8) Faculty of Forestry and Environment, IPB University, Jl. Raya Dramaga Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, 16680
(9) Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 113-0032
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The role of protected areas has been expanded into climate change mitigation, specifically on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). A reliable and practical method for measuring, reporting and verifying carbon stock is an essential component for REDD+. This study aims to recognize the characteristic and estimate aboveground forest carbon (AGC) stock in the tropical protected tropical area using a combination of terrestrial forest inventory and spatial data. A 168 cluster plots totaling 33.6 hectares were taken proportionally based on the percentage of forest cover types (dryland primary natural forest/DPF and dryland secondary natural forest/DSF) using a traditional forest inventory method (more than 5 cm dbh). Results showed that Bukit Tigapuluh National Park secured a significant AGC stock which has been estimated to be 269.2 [247.07; 291.43] tC/ha or 35,823,639 [32,872,312; 38,774,966] tC in total, being stored in approximately 133,051 hectares of the tropical rain forest. This result was higher than other studies in non-protected areas but slightly lower than other studies within protected areas. This finding supported the argument that protected areas possess a higher figure of AGC stock than other forest management units. The high amount of forest carbon biomass in the protected areas shall be very important assets for conducting the role of conservation for REDD+.

 


Keywords


Forest Carbon Stock, Protected Area, REDD+

Full Text:

PDF


References

Avitabile, V. et al., 2016. An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets. Global Change Biology, 22(4), pp.1406–1420. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13139.

Baraloto, C. et al., 2013. Rapid Simultaneous Estimation of Aboveground Biomass and Tree Diversity Across Neotropical Forests: A Comparison of Field Inventory Methods. Biotropica, 45(3), pp.288–298. doi: 10.1111/btp.12006.

Boissière, M. et al., 2017. The feasibility of local participation in Measuring, Reporting and Verification (PMRV) for REDD+ B. Bond-Lamberty, ed. PLOS ONE, 12(5), p.e0176897. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176897.

Brofeldt, S. et al., 2014. Community Monitoring of Carbon Stocks for REDD+: Does Accuracy and Cost Change over Time? Forests, 5(8), pp.1834–1854. doi: 10.3390/f5081834.

Brown, S., 1997. Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests: a primer, Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

BSN, 2011. SNI 7724:2011 Pengukuran dan penghitungan cadangan karbon –Pengukuran lapangan untuk penaksiran cadangan karbon hutan (ground based forest carbon accounting).

Bukit Tigapuluh Wildlife Protection Unit, 2017. Quarterly report: January – March 2017.

Chave, J. et al., 2005. Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia, 145(1), pp.87–99. doi: 10.1007/s00442-005-0100-x.

Collins, M.B. & Mitchard, E.T.A., 2017. A small subset of protected areas are a highly significant source of carbon emissions. Scientific Reports, 7(1). doi: 10.1038/srep41902.

Deguignet, M. et al., 2017. Measuring the extent of overlaps in protected area designations D. Hyrenbach, ed. PLOS ONE, 12(11), p.e0188681. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188681.

FAO, 2007. Brief on national forest inventory NFI - Indonesia., p.14.

Gardner, T.A. et al., 2012. A framework for integrating biodiversity concerns into national REDD+ programmes. Biological Conservation, 154, pp.61–71. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.11.018.

GOFC-GOLD, 2014a. A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation GOFC-GOLD Report version COP20-1., GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, hosted by Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

GOFC-GOLD, 2014b. A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation GOFC-GOLD Report version COP20-1., GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, hosted by Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

Government of Indonesia, 1999. Undang-Undang No. 41 Tahun 1999 tentang Kehutanan.

Gunawan, W. et al., 2011. Analysis of Vegetation Structure and Composition toward Restoration Efforts of Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park Forest Area. Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan, 1(2), pp.93–105. doi: https://doi.org/10.29244/jpsl.1.2.93.

Harada, K. et al., 2015. How Can Social Safeguards of REDD+ Function Effectively Conserve Forests and Improve Local Livelihoods? A Case from Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia. Land, 4(1), pp.119–139. doi: 10.3390/land4010119.

Henttonen, H.M. & Kangas, A., 2015. Optimal plot design in a multipurpose forest inventory. Forest Ecosystems, 2(1), p.31. doi: 10.1186/s40663-015-0055-2.

Indonesia Forest Climate Alliance (IFCA), 2007. REDDI: REDD Methodology and Strategies: Summary for Policy Makers, Jakarta, Indonesia: The Ministry of Forestry.

IPCC, 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Hayama, Japan: The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES).

IUCN, 2010. 50 years of working for protected areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 2010., Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.

Kuswanda, W. & Barus, S.P., 2019. Characteristic and Diversity Vegetation of Bukit Tiga Puluh National Park as Dietary Sources for Reintroduced Sumatran Orang Utan (Pongo abelii Lesson). Buletin Plasma Nutfah, 25(1), p.63. doi: 10.21082/blpn.v25n1.2019.p63-76.

Laumonier, Y. et al., 2010. Landscape-scale variation in the structure and biomass of the hill dipterocarp forest of Sumatra: Implications for carbon stock assessments. Forest Ecology and Management, 259(3), pp.505–513. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.11.007.

Luskin, M.S., Albert, W.R. & Tobler, M.W., 2017. Sumatran tiger survival threatened by deforestation despite increasing densities in parks. Nature Communications, 8(1). doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-01656-4.

Manuri, S. et al., 2016. Improved allometric equations for tree aboveground biomass estimation in tropical dipterocarp forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia. Forest Ecosystems, 3(1). doi: 10.1186/s40663-016-0087-2.

Manuri, S. et al., 2017. Effect of species grouping and site variables on aboveground biomass models for lowland tropical forests of the Indo-Malay region. Annals of Forest Science, 74(1). doi: 10.1007/s13595-017-0618-1.

Marshall, A.R. et al., 2012. Measuring and modelling above-ground carbon and tree allometry along a tropical elevation gradient. Biological Conservation, 154, pp.20–33. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.03.017.

Ministry of Environment and Forestry, 2016. National Forest Reference Emission Level for Deforestation and Forest Degradation: In the Context of Decision 1/CP.16 para 70 UNFCCC (Encourages developing country Parties to contribute to mitigation actions in the forest sector), Jakarta, Indonesia: Directorate General of Climate Change (DG-PPI), The Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

Ogawa, H. & Kira, T., 1977. Methods of estimating forest biomass. In T. Shidei & T. Kira (eds), Primary productivity of Japanese forest. JIBP Synthesis 16. Tokyo: Univ. of Tokyo Press, pp. 15–25.

Paoli, G.D., Curran, L.M. & Slik, J.W.F., 2008. Soil nutrients affect spatial patterns of aboveground biomass and emergent tree density in southwestern Borneo. Oecologia, 155(2), pp.287–299. doi: 10.1007/s00442-007-0906-9.

Petrokofsky, G. et al., 2012. Comparison of methods for measuring and assessing carbon stocks and carbon stock changes in terrestrial carbon pools. How do the accuracy and precision of current methods compare? A systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence, 1(1), p.6. doi: 10.1186/2047-2382-1-6.

Picard, N. et al., 2018. Plot-level variability in biomass for tropical forest inventory designs. Forest Ecology and Management, 430, pp.10–20. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.07.052.

Pramudya, E.P., Hospes, O. & Termeer, C.J.A.M., 2018. The disciplining of illegal palm oil plantations in Sumatra. Third World Quarterly, 39(5), pp.920–940. doi: 10.1080/01436597.2017.1401462.

Pusat Data dan Informasi KLHK, 2017. Statistik Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Tahun 2016, Jakarta, Indonesia: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan.

Republic of Indonesia, 2016. First Nationally Determined Contribution Republic of Indonesia.

Romijn, E. et al., 2013. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia. Environmental Science & Policy, 33, pp.246–259. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2013.06.002.

Rutishauser, E. et al., 2013. Generic allometric models including height best estimate forest biomass and carbon stocks in Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 307, pp.219–225. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.07.013.

Shah, P. & Baylis, K., 2015. Evaluating Heterogeneous Conservation Effects of Forest Protection in Indonesia D. Hui, ed. PLOS ONE, 10(6), p.e0124872. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124872.

Sitompul, A. & Pratje, P. eds., 2009. The Bukit Tigapuluh Ecosystem Conservation Implementation Plan, Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, Directorate General Forest Protection and Nature Conservation.

Slik, J.W.F. et al., 2010. Environmental correlates of tree biomass, basal area, wood specific gravity and stem density gradients in Borneo’s tropical forests: Forest carbon and structure gradients. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19(1), pp.50–60. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-8238.2009.00489.x.

Yamakura, T. et al., 1986. Aboveground Biomass of Tropical Rain Forest Stands in Indonesian Borneo. Vegetatio, 68(2), pp.71–82.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.64827

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1708 | views : 902

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)