Nutrigenomic and Biomolecular Aspect of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder as Supplementation for Stunting Children

Agus Indra Yudhistira Diva Putra(1), Nyoman Budhi Wirananda Setiawan(2), Made Indira Dianti Sanjiwani(3), Ida Ayu Ika Wahyuniari(4), Agung Wiwiek Indrayani(5*)

(1) School of Medicine and Medical Doctor Profession Education, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali
(2) School of Medicine and Medical Doctor Profession Education, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali
(3) School of Medicine and Medical Doctor Profession Education, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali
(4) Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali
(5) Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Bali
(*) Corresponding Author


Stunting is a global health problem. Based on WHO data, there are 161 million children who experience stunting. Breastmilk supplementation in the form of Moringa oleifera leaves powder is known to be beneficial in suppressing the stunting incidence. Moringa oleifera leaves powder contains protein, micronutrients, and minerals such as calcium, iron, sodium, vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and antioxidants (flavonoid acids, phenolic acids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, and saponins). The use of Moringa oleifera leaves powder in stunting cases has been carried out, but further studies in the aspects of nutrigenomics and molecular biology have not been conducted. This study is a literature review of relevant articles from,, and The author used keywords "stunting", "nutrigenomics", "biomolecular", and "Moringa oleifera". Pathogenic microbe such as Shigella and pathogenic E. coli ingestion can cause changes in DNA sequences in the stunting pathogenesis. Moringa oleifera leave powder can pass through nutrigenomic and biomolecular mechanisms. Some macro and micromolecules of Moringa oleifera leaves powder such as folate plays a role in DNA methylation; vegetable protein and fatty acids act as promoters in DNA sequences; vitamins act as cofactors for enzymes, antioxidant, and antiinflammation. Seeing various potential mechanisms in the aspects of nutrigenomic and molecular biology, Moringa oleifera leaves powder can be used in overcoming stunting. Further research is needed to give more review about cytokines and molecules included in this literature review.


biomolecular; Moringa oleifera; nutrigenomic; stunting

Full Text:



Abbas, R.K., Elsharbasy, F.S., & Fadlelmula, A.A. 2018. Nutritional values of moringa oleifera, total protein, amino acid, vitamins, minerals, carbohidrates, total fats and crude fiber, under the semi-arid conditions of Sudan. Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology, 10 (2), 56-58.

Abd El-Maksoud, A. M., Khairy, S. A., Sharada, H. M., Abdalla, M. S. & Ahmed, N. F. 2017. Evaluation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in nutritionally stunted Egyptian children. Egyptian Pediatric Association Gazette, 65, 80-84.

Amagloh, F. K., Hardacre, A., Mutukumira, A. N., Weber, J. L., Brough, L. & Coad, J. 2012. A household‐level sweet potato‐based infant food to complement vitamin A supplementation initiatives. Maternal & child nutrition, 8, 512-521.

Chakraborty, S. P. 2019. Patho-physiological and toxicological aspects of monosodium glutamate. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, 29, 389-396.

Chibisov, S., Singh, M., Singh, R. B., Halabi, G., Horiuchi, R. & Takahashi, T. 2019. Functional food security for prevention of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health. Elsevier.

Daba, M. 2016. Miracle tree: A review on multi-purposes of Moringa oleifera and its implication for climate change mitigation. J. Earth Sci. Clim. Change, 7.

De Onis, M. & Branca, F. 2016. Childhood stunting: a global perspective. Maternal & child nutrition, 12, 12-26.

Denardo, A., Arosio, P. & Carmona, D. F. 2015. Production of recombinant human BMP6 and peptides for the study of heparin binding activity. Thesis, Universita Degli Studi Di Bresica, Italy.

Dhakar, R. C., Maurya, S. D., Pooniya, B. K., Bairwa, N. & Gupta, M. 2011. Moringa: The herbal gold to combat malnutrition. Chronicles of Young Scientists, 2.

Ganasen, M., Togashi, H., Takeda, H., Asakura, H., Tosha, T., Yamashita, K., Hirata, K., Nariai, Y., Urano, T. & Yuan, X. 2018. Structural basis for promotion of duodenal iron absorption by enteric ferric reductase with ascorbate. Communications biology, 1, 1-12.

Ganz, T. & Nemeth, E. 2011. The hepcidin-ferroportin system as a therapeutic target in anemias and iron overload disorders. Hematology 2010, the American Society of Hematology Education Program Book, 2011, 538-542.

Glover‐Amengor, M., Aryeetey, R., Afari, E. & Nyarko, A. 2017. Micronutrient composition and acceptability of Moringa oleifera leaf‐fortified dishes by children in Ada‐East district, Ghana. Food Science & Nutrition, 5, 317-323.

Gonzalez, M. J., Miranda-Massari, J. R., Duconge, J., Rodriguez, J. R., Cintron, K., Berdiel, M. J. & Rodriguez, J. W. 2015. Nutrigenomics, Metabolic Correction and Disease. Journal of Restorative Medicine, 4, 74-82.

Huang, W.-L., Tung, C.-W., Liaw, C., Huang, H.-L. & Ho, S.-Y. 2014. Rule-based knowledge acquisition method for promoter prediction in human and drosophila species. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 327306.

Idohou-Dossou, N., Diouf, A., Gueye, A., Guiro, A. & Wade, S. 2011. Impact of daily consumption of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) dry leaf powder on iron status of Senegalese lactating women. African journal of food, agriculture, nutrition and development, 11, 4985-4999.

Joung, H., Kim, B., Park, H., Lee, K., Kim, H.-H., Sim, H.-C., Do, H.-J., Hyun, C.-K. & Do, M.-S. 2017. Fermented Moringa oleifera decreases hepatic adiposity and ameliorates glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Journal of medicinal food, 20, 439-447.

Kasolo, J. N., Bimenya, G. S., Ojok, L., Ochieng, J. & Ogwal-Okeng, J. W. 2010. Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaves in Ugandan rural communities. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4, 753-757.

Kemenkes, R. 2013. Laporan riset kesehatan dasar tahun 2013 [2013 Basic Health Research report]. Jakarta: Balai Penelitia dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI.

Kemenkes, R. 2018. Situasi balita pendek (Stunting) di Indonesia [The situation of stunting in Indonesia]. Buletin Jendela Data dan Informasi Kesehatan. Semester I.

Kim, M. S., Wu, K. Y., Auyeung, V., Chen, Q., Gruppuso, P. A. & Phornphutkul, C. 2009. Leucine restriction inhibits chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation through mechanisms both dependent and independent of mTOR signaling. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 296, E1374-E1382.

Kou, X., Li, B., Olayanju, J. B., Drake, J. M. & Chen, N. 2018. Nutraceutical or pharmacological potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. Nutrients, 10, 343.

Kuswanto, W. R. a. K. R. & Widanti, Y. A. 2018. Penambahan puree daun kelor (moringa oleifera) dan puree pisang ambon untuk formula MPASI (Makanan Pendamping ASI) [Addition of Moringa leaf puree (moringa oleifera) and Ambon banana puree to formula complementary foods (ASI)]. JITIPARI (Jurnal Ilmiah Teknologi dan Industri Pangan UNISRI), 3.

Laurus, G., Fatimah, S. N. & Gurnida, D. A. 2016. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor. Althea Medical Journal, 3, 364-370.

Leone, A., Spada, A., Battezzati, A., Schiraldi, A., Aristil, J. & Bertoli, S. 2015. Cultivation, genetic, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Moringa oleifera leaves: An overview. International journal of molecular sciences, 16, 12791-12835.

Leopoldini, M., Russo, N. & Toscano, M. 2011. The molecular basis of working mechanism of natural polyphenolic antioxidants. Food Chemistry, 125, 288-306.

Loya, R. R. P. & Nuryanto, N. 2017. Pola Asuh Pemberian Makan pada Balita Stunting Usia 6–12 bulan di Kabupaten Sumba Tengah Nusa Tenggara Timur. Diponegoro University.

Ma, Z., Ahmad, J., Zhang, H., Khan, I. & Muhammad, S. 2020. Evaluation of phytochemical and medicinal properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) as a potential functional food. South African Journal of Botany, 129, 40-46.

Maki A, M. 2014. Hubungan antara pendapatan orang tua dengan status gizi pada siswa SDN II Tenggong Rejotangan Tulungagung [The relationship between parents' income and nutritional status of SDN II Tenggong Rejotangan Tulungagung students]. Jurnal Pendidikan Olahraga dan Kesehatan, 2.

Mawouma, S., Ponka, R. & Mbofung, C. M. 2017. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far‐north region of Cameroon. Food science & nutrition, 5, 344-348.

Mitra, M. 2015. Stunting problems and interventions to prevent stunting (a Literature Review). Jurnal Kesehatan Komunitas, 2, 254-261.

Mohan, N. 2013. Dietary Nutrients: More Than Just nourishment. NISCAIR-CSIR, 50, 34-35.

Mufida, L., Widyaningsih, T. D. & Maligan, J. M. 2015. Prinsip Dasar Makanan Pendamping Air Susu Ibu (MP-ASI) Untuk Bayi 6–24 Bulan: Kajian Pustaka [Basic Principles of Complementary Breastfeeding (MP-ASI) for Infants 6–24 Months: Literature Review]. Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri, 3.

Muliawati, D. & Sulistyawati, N. 2019. The use of Moringa oleifera extract to prevent stunting in toddler Jurnal Kesehatan Madani Medika, 10, 123-131.

Nasmiati, C., Ginting, R. & Rahman, A. 2014. Analisis Produksi Dan Ketersediaan Serta Kebutuhan Kedelai Dalam Kaitannya Dengan Ketahanan Pangan Di Provinsi Sumatera Utara [Analysis of Soybean Production and Availability and Needs in Relation to Food Security in North Sumatra Province]. JURNAL AGRICA, 7, 13-25.

Netshiheni, K. R., Mashau, M. E. & Jideani, A. I. O. 2019. Nutritional and sensory properties of instant maize porridge fortified with Moringa oleifera leaves and termite (Macrotermes falciger) powders. Nutrition & Food Science.

Oyeyinka, A. T. & Oyeyinka, S. A. 2018. Moringa oleifera as a food fortificant: Recent trends and prospects. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 17, 127-136.

Prendergast, A. J., Humphrey, J. H., Mutasa, K., Majo, F. D., Rukobo, S., Govha, M., Mbuya, M. N., Moulton, L. H. & Stoltzfus, R. J. 2015. Assessment of environmental enteric dysfunction in the SHINE trial: methods and challenges. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 61, S726-S732.

Probowati, R., Wibowo, H., Ningtyas, S. F., Ratnawati, M. & Nursalam, N. 2016. Role Attainment Ibu dalam Pemberian MP–Asi dengan Peningkatan Berat Badan Bayi Usia 6-12 Bulan [Mother's Role Attainment in Giving MP-Asi with Increasing Body Weight for Infants aged 6-12 Months]. Jurnal Ners, 11, 170-175.

Rahayu, T. B. & Nurindahsari, Y. a. W. 2018. Peningkatan status gizi balita melalui pemberian daun kelor (Moringa oleifera) [Improving the nutritional status of toddlers through the provision of Moringa oleifera leaves]. Jurnal Madani Medika, 9, 87-91.

Reddy, V. S., Palika, R., Ismail, A., Pullakhandam, R. & Reddy, G. B. 2018. Nutrigenomics: Opportunities & challenges for public health nutrition. The Indian journal of medical research, 148, 632.

Rodríguez-Cruz, M. & Serna, D. S. 2017. Nutrigenomics of ω-3 fatty acids: Regulators of the master transcription factors. Nutrition, 41, 90-96.

Rosha, B. C., Sari, K., Sp, I. Y., Amaliah, N. & Utami, N. 2016. Peran intervensi gizi spesifik dan sensitif dalam perbaikan masalah gizi balita di Kota Bogor [The role of specific and sensitive nutrition interventions in improving nutrition problems for children under five in Bogor City]. Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan, 44, 127-138.

Saini, R., Manoj, P., Shetty, N., Srinivasan, K. & Giridhar, P. 2014. Dietary iron supplements and Moringa oleifera leaves influence the liver hepcidin messenger RNA expression and biochemical indices of iron status in rats. Nutrition Research, 34, 630-638.

Saini, R. K., Sivanesan, I. & Keum, Y.-S. 2016. Phytochemicals of Moringa oleifera: a review of their nutritional, therapeutic and industrial significance. 3 Biotech, 6, 203.

Sedgh, G., Herrera, M. G., Nestel, P., El Amin, A. & W. Fawzi, W. 2000. Dietary vitamin A intake and nondietary factors are associated with reversal of stunting in children. The Journal of nutrition, 130, 2520-2526.

Shekar, M., Kakietek, J., D’alimonte, M. R., Rogers, H. E., Eberwein, J. D., Akuoku, J. K., Pereira, A., Soe-Lin, S. & Hecht, R. 2017. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework. Health policy and planning, 32, 657-668.

Shija, A. E., Rumisha, S. F., Oriyo, N. M., Kilima, S. P. & Massaga, J. J. 2019. Effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf powder supplementation on reducing anemia in children below two years in Kisarawe District, Tanzania. Food science & nutrition, 7, 2584-2594.

Soetjiningsih, D. 1995. Tumbuh kembang anak [Child growth and development]. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC, 1, 995.

Stefano, P., Ivana, M., Arianna, G., Letizia, Z., Angelo, G., Rosella, C., Roberta, B., Vittorio, C., Antonella, C. & Maurizio, M. 2019. Identification of microRNAs and relative target genes in Moringa oleifera leaf and callus. Scientific reports, 9, 1-14.

Susanto, H., Hernowati, T. E. & Indra, M. R. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder as Nutrigenomic Therapy Against Malnutrition and Metabolic Perturbation Related Diseases: a Preliminary Study of Madura Islands Variety.  1st International Conference in One Health (ICOH 2017), 2017. Atlantis Press.

Swarinastiti, D., Hardaningsih, G. & Pratiwi, R. 2018. Dominasi Asupan Protein Nabati Sebagai Faktor Risiko Stunting Anak Usia 2-4 Tahun [The dominance of vegetable protein intake as a risk factor for stunting in children aged 2-4 years]. Jurnal Kedokteran Diponegoro, 7, 1470-1483.

Teshome, B., Kogi-Makau, W., Getahun, Z. & Taye, G. 2009. Magnitude and determinants of stunting in children underfive years of age in food surplus region of Ethiopia: the case of west gojam zone. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 23.

Valko, M., Izakovic, M., Mazur, M., Rhodes, C. J. & Telser, J. 2004. Role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage and cancer incidence. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 266, 37-56.

Wang, Y., Gao, Y., Ding, H., Liu, S., Han, X., Gui, J. & Liu, D. 2017. Subcritical ethanol extraction of flavonoids from Moringa oleifera leaf and evaluation of antioxidant activity. Food chemistry, 218, 152-158.

World Health Organization, W. 2015. World health statistics 2015, World Health Organization.

Zhang, Z. & Chandola, T. 2017. P17 Chronic malnutrition in early life and cognitive outcome in mid-childhood: evidence from four developing countries. J Epidemiol Community Health, 71 (Suppl 1), A2-A96.

Zongo, U., Zoungrana, S. L., Savadogo, A. & Traoré, A. S. 2013. Nutritional and clinical rehabilitation of severely malnourished children with Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Food and Nutrition Sciences, 4, 991-997.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 775 | views : 804


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)