Antlers Characterization for Identification of Deer Species (Family Cervidae) in Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.45667

Donan Satria Yudha(1), M Zulfiqar Meizar Pratama(2*), Rury Eprilurahman(3)

(1) Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) 
(3) Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


There are five species of deer (family Cervidae) living in Indonesia today. Male deer possesses antlers, a unique character of male deer. Antlers have economic values for quite a long time. Antler’s growth is influenced by several factors, therefore each species of deer have its own unique antlers’ shape and size. Antler’s identification usually relies on size measurement and overall shape of complete antlers which still attach to the skull. It is difficult to identify shed, broken or individual antler. The purpose of the research is to understand antlers’ morphological characters on each species to become diagnostic characters. Specimens analysed were collections of LIPI and were analysed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using PAST3 software. The results showed each species of deer having their own unique antlers’ character, and so it can be used to determine the species of Indonesian deer. The important structures for identification are relief, pedicle, brow, bez, and main beam.


Keywords


Deer; Antler; Diagnostic Character; Identification; Indonesia

Full Text:

PDF


References

Bubenik, G.A. & Bubenik, A.B., 1990, Horns, Pronghorns, and Antlers: Evolution, Morphology, Physiology, and Social Significance, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 146–148.

Boone & Crockett Club. Antler Measurements, in Miller, K.V. & Marchinton, R.L., 1995, Quality Whitetails, Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, pp. 33–34.

CITES, 2003, CITES Identification Guide – Hunting Trophies, Ministry of Supply and Services Canada, pp. key 8–13, y 2–23.

Goss, R.J., 1985, Deer Antlers: Regeneration, Function, and Evolution, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–2, 44–45.

Hedges, S., Duckworth, J.W., Timmins, R., Semiadi, G. & Dryden, G, 2015, Rusa timorensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T41789A22156866, viewed 2 September 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T41789A22156866.en.

Heffelfinger, J., 2006, Deer of the Southwest: A Complete Guide to the Natural History, Biology, and Management of Southwestern Mule Deer and White-Tailed Deer, Texas A&M University Press, College Station, pp. 77–88.

McPherson, J. & McPherson, G., 2008, Ultimate Guide to Wilderness Living, Ulysses Press, Berkeley, pp. 57–59.

Ministry of Environment and Forestry, 2018, P.20/MENLHK/SETJEN/KUM.1/6/2018.

Price, J.S., Allen, S., Faucheux, C., Althnaian, T., & Mount, J.G., 2005, Deer Antlers: A Zoological Curiosity or the Key to Understanding Organ Regeneration in Mammals?, Journal of Anatomy 207, 603–618.

Prothero, D.R. & Foss, S.E., 2007. The Evolution of Artiodactyls, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp. 249–250.

Semiadi, G., Duckworth, J.W. & Timmins, R, 2015, Axis kuhlii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T2447A73071875, viewed 2 September 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T2447A73071875.en.

Semiadi, G., Subekti, K., Sutama, I. K., Masy’ud, B., & Affandy, L., 2003. Antler’s Growth of the Endangered and Endemic Bawean Deer (Axis kuhlii Müller & Schlegel, 1842), Treubia 33(1), 89–95.

Stefoff, R., 2008, Deer, Marshall Cavendish, New York, pp. 47–55.

Timmins, R.J., Belden, G., Brodie, J., Ross, J., Wilting, A. & Duckworth, J.W, 2016a, Muntiacus atherodes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T42189A22166396, viewed 2 September 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T42189A22166396.en.

Timmins, R.J., Duckworth, J.W. & Groves, C.P., 2016b, Muntiacus montanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T136831A22168363, viewed 2 September 2019. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T136831A22168363 .en.

Walrod, D., 2010, Antlers: A Guide to Collecting, Scoring, Mounting, and Carving, Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, pp. 4–6, 83–85.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.45667

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 570 | views : 430

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)