Penyakit Ginjal Kronis pada Anjing dan Kucing: Manajemen Terapi dan Diet

Yanuartono Yanuartono, Alfarisa Nururrozi, Soedarmanto Indarjulianto,

(1) Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Universitas Gadjah Mada


Chronic kidney disease is a progressive impairment of renal function and irreversible. The kidneys fail to maintain metabolism and fluid and electrolyte balance, causing uremia. This disease is a common problem in old cats and dogs that not detected by the owners up to 75 % of kidney function is damaged. Clinical signs vary as polyuria, polidipsi, anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, pale mucous membranes, mouth ulceration, halitosis and acute blindness. Chronic renal failure is not curable so that the necessary medication management and proper diet in orderto improve the quality of life and prolong the life of the animal.


chronic renal failure; clinical signs; treatment; diet

Full Text:



Adams, L. G. (2004). Chronic renal failure. In: The

- Minute Veterinary Consult. 4th edn. Eds

L. P. Tilley and F. W. K. Smith. Lippincott

William & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, USA. :


Adams, L.G. (2013). How I treat anorexia in cats

with chronic kidney disease. Proc World Small

Animal Veterinary Assoc Congress Proc.

Allen, T. A., Polzin, D. J. and Adams, L. G. (2000).

Renal disease. In: Small Animal Clinical

Nutrition. 4th edn. Eds M. S. Hand, C. D.

Thatcher, R. L. Remillard and P. Roudebush.

Mark Morris Institute, Topeka, KS, USA. :


Arora, P. (2014). Chronic Kidney Disease. MedScape.

Diakses dari

article/238798-overview. Pada tanggal 18

Agustus 2016.

Arzi, B., Anderson, J.G. and Verstraete, F.J.M. (2008).

Oral manifestations of systemic disorders in

dogs and cats. Journal of Veterinary Clinical

Science 1 : 112–124.

Atlas, S.A. (2007). The renin-angiotensin aldosterone

system: Pathophysiological role and

pharmacologic inhibition. Journal of Managed

Care Pharmacy. 13: 9–20.

Bacic, A., Kogika, M.M., Barbaro, K.C., Iuamoto,

C.S., Simoes, D.M. and Santoro, M.L. (2010).

Evaluation of albuminuria and its relationship

with blood pressure in dogs with chronic

kidney disease. Veterinary Clinical Pathology

: 203– 209.

Barber, P.J. and Elliott, J. (1998) Feline chronic

renal failure: calcium homeostasis in 80 cases

diagnosed between 1992 and 1995. J Small

Anim Pract. 39 : 108-116.

Barber, P.J., Rawlings, J.M., Markwell, P.J. and Elliott,

J. (1999). Effect of dietary phosphate restriction

on renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in the

cat. J Small Anim Pract. 40:62-70.

Bargnoux, A., Cristol, J., Jaussent, I., Chalabi, L., Bories,

P., Dion, J.J., Henri, P., Delage, M., Dupuy, A.M.,

Badiou, S., Canaud, B. and Morena, M. (2013).

Vitamin E-coated polysulfone membrane

improved red blood cell antioxidant status in

hemodialysis patients. Nephrology 26 :556–563.

Bartges, J.W. (2012). Chronic Kidney Disease in

Dogs and Cats. Veterinary Clinics of North

America: Small Animal Practice 2012;42:669-

Bartges JW. Chronic Kidney Disease in

Dogs and Cats. Veterinary Clinics of North

America: Small Animal Practice. 42 :669-692.

Bartlett, P. C., Van Buren, J.W., . Bartlett, A. D.

and, Chu.Z (2010). Research Article Case-

Control Study of Risk Factors Associated with

Feline and Canine Chronic Kidney Disease.

Veterinary Medicine International Vol.2010,

Article ID 957570, 1 – 9.

Bellasi, A., Kooienga, L. and Block, G.A. (2006).

Phosphate binders: new products and

challenges. Hemodial Int. 10: 225–34.

Bernachon, N., Fournel, S., Gatto, H., Monginoux,

P. and McGahie, D. (2014). Effect of a

Product Containing the Dietary Phosphate

Binders Calcium and Magnesium Carbonate

Associated with Other Reno-protectant

Substances (Pronefra®) on Blood Parameters

and Mineral Balance in Adult Cats. Intern J

Appl Res Vet Med. Vol. 12 (1) : 8 – 17.

Bernsteen, L., Gregory, C.R., Aronson, L.R.,

Lirtzman, R.A. and Brummer, D.G. (1999).

Acute toxoplasmosis following renal

transplantation in three cats and a dog.

Journal of the American Veterinary Medical

Association 215(8) :1123-1126.

Yanuartono et al.

Bloomberg, R.M., Pook, H. A., Jacobs, R. M. and Van

Gorder, J. M. (1992). Human recombinant

eritropoetin therapy in a cat with chronic renal

failure. Can Vet J Vol. 33 : 612 – 613.

Bodey, A.R. and Michell, A.R. (1996).

Epidemiological study of blood pressure in

domestic dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 37 :116–125.

Brody, T. (1999). Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd edn.

Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA. : 575.

Brown, S.A. (2015). Renal dysfunction in small animals.

The Merck Veterinary Manual website. www.



in_small_animals. html.. Diakses Januari 14.

Brown, S.A. and Finco, D.R. (1995). Reassessment

of the use of calcitriol in chronic renal failure.

In: Bonagura JD, ed. Kirk’s Current Veterinary

Therapy XII. Philadelphia: WB Saunders :


Brown, S.A., Atkins, B.C., Carr, R., Cowgill, A.,

Davidson, L., Egner, M., Elliott, B., Henik

J., Labato, R., Littman, M., Polzin, M., Ross,

D., Snyder, L.P. and Stepien, R. (2007).

“Guidelines for the identification, evaluation,

and management of systemic hypertension in

dogs and cats,” J Vet Intern Med. 21 :542–558.

Brown, S.A., Finco, D.R., Bartges, J.W., Brown,

C.A. and Barsanti, J.A. (1998). Interventional

nutrition for renal disease. Clin Tech Small

Anim Pract. 13: 217-223.

Brown, S.A., Brown, C.A., Crowell, W.A., Barsanti,

J.A., Kang, C.W., Allen, T., Cowell, C.

and Finco, D.R. (2000) Effects of dietary

polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in

early renal insufficiency in dogs. J Lab Clin

Med.135 :275-286.

Brown, S.A., Finco, D.R., Brown, C.A., Crowell,

W.A., Alva, R., Ericsson, G.E. and Cooper, T.

(2003). Evaluation of the effects of inhibition

of angiotensin converting enzyme with

enalapril in dogs with induced chronic renal

insufficiency. Am J Vet Res. 64: 321–327.

Brown, S.A., Brown, C.A., Crowell, W.A., Basanti,

J.A. and Finco D.R. (1996). Does modifying

dietary lipids influence the progression of renal

failure? Vet Clin North Am. 26:1277–1285.

Burkholder, W.J. (2000). Dietary considerations for

dogs and cats with renal disease. Journal of the

American Veterinary Medical Association 216

: 1730-1734.

Car, B.D. (2001). Erythropoiesis and erythrokinetics.

In: Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC,

eds. Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology New

York: McGraw-Hill,:271—288.

Center, S.A., Wilkinson, E., Smith, C.A., Erb, H. and

Lewis, R.M. (1985). 24-Hour urine protein/creatinine

ratio in dogs with protein-losing nephropathies.

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 187:820–824.

Chakrabarti, S., Syme, H.M. and Elliott, J. (2012).

Clinicopathological variables predicting

progression of azotemia in cats with chronic

kidney disease. J Vet Intern Med. 26: 275–281.

Chalhoub, S., Langston, C.E. and Eatroff, A. (2011).

Anemia Of Renal Disease What it is, what to

do and what’s new. Journal of Feline Medicine

and Surgery 13 : 629–640.

Chalhoub, S., Langston, C.E. and Farrelly, J.

(2012). The use of darbepoetin to stimulate

erythropoiesis in anemia of chronic kidney

disease in cats: 25 cases. J Vet Intern Med.

(2) :363–369.

Chandler, M.L., Elwood. C., Murphy,

K.F., Gajanayake, I. and Syme, H.M. (2007).

Juvenile nephropathy in 37 boxer dogs. J

Small Anim Pract. 48(12):690-694.

Chen, W. and Abramowitz, M. K. (2014). Metabolic

acidosis and the progression of chronic kidney

disease. BMC Nephrology 15 : 55.

Chen, W. and Abramowitz, M. K (2014). Treatment

of Metabolic Acidosis in Patients With CKD

Am J Kidney Dis. Feb; 63(2): 311–317.

Chew, D.J. (2015). Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

in Dogs & Cats - Staging and Management

Strategies. A Presentation to the Virginia

Veterinary Medical Association. Virginia

Veterinary Conference. : 1 – 22

Penyakit Ginjal Kronis pada Anjing dan Kucing: Manajemen Terapi dan Diet

Chew, D.J. and Nagode, L.A. (1992). Kalsitriol in the

treatment of chronic renal failure. In: Kirk BW,

Bonagura JD, eds. Current Veterinary Therapy

XI, Small Animal Practice. Philadelphia: WB

Saunders. :857-860.

Cook, S. M. and Lothrop, C. D. (1994). Serum eritropoetin

concentrations measured by radioimmunoassay

in normal, polycythemic, and anemic dogs

and cats. J Vet Intern Med. 8 : 18–25.

Cortadellas, O., del Palacio, M.J., Bayón, A., Albert, A.

and Talavera, J. (2006). Systemic hypertension

in dogs with leishmaniasis: Prevalence and clinical

consequences. J Vet Int Med. 20: 941–947.

Cowgill, L. D. (1991). Eritropoetin: Its use in the

treatment of chronic renal failure in dogs and

cats. Proc Annu Waltham/OSU Symp Treat

Small Anim Dis;15:65–71.

Cowgill, L.D., James, K.M., Levy, J.K., Browne,

J.K., Miller, A., Lobingier, R.T. and Egrie, J.C.

(1998). Use of recombinant human eritropoetin

for management of anemia in dogs and cats

with renal failure. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 212:


Crisp, M.S., Chew, D. J., DiBartola, S. P. and Birchard, S. J.

(1989). “Peritoneal Dialysis inDogs and Cats: 27

Cases” (1976-1987). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 195:


de Brito-Ashurst, I., Varagunam, M., Raftery, M.J.

and Yaqoob, M.M. (2009). Bicarbonate

supplementation slows progression of CKD

and improves nutritional status. J Am Soc

Nephrol. 20: 2075–2084.

de Morais, H.A., Bach, J.F. and diBartola, S.P. (2008).

Metabolic acidbase disorders in the critical

care unit. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract.

: 559–574.

DiBartola, S.P. and de Morais, H.A. (2006). Disorders

of potassium: Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia,

in DiBartola SP (ed): Fluid, Electrolyte, and

Acid-Base Disorders. 3rd ed., Philadelphia,

Elsevier : 91-121.

Dibartola, S.P., and Willard, M.D. (2006). Disorders

of phosphorous: hypophosphatemia and

hyperphosphatemia. In: Dibartola SP, ed.

Fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders

in small animal practice. 3rd edn. Missouri:

Elsevier. : 195–209.

Dokuzeylul, B. And Kayar, M.E. A. (2016). Prevalence

of systemic disorders in cats with oral lesions.

Veterinarni Medicina, 61 (4) : 219–223.

Dow, S.W., Fettman, M.J., LeCouteur, R.A. and

Hamar, D.W. (1987). Potassium depletion in

cats: Renal and dietary influences. J Am Vet

Med Assoc;191:1569–1575.

Dzanis, D.A., Corbellini, C.N., Krook, L. and Kallfelz, F.A.

(1991). Effects of 1,25- dihydroxycholecalciferol

and 24,25- dihydroxycholecalciferol in dogs with

impaired renal function. J Nutr. 121(11 Suppl)

: S70– S72.

Elliott, J. (2008). Hyperphosphataemia And CKD

. : 1 – 19.

Elliott, J. and Barber, P.J. (1998). Feline chronic renal

failure: clinical findings in 80 cases diagnosed

between 1992 and 1995. J Small Anim Pract.

: 78–85.

Elliott, J., Rawlings, J.M., Markwell, P.J. and Barber,

P.J. (2000). Survival of cats with naturally

occurring chronic renal failure: effect of

dietary management. J Small Anim Pract

(6): 235-242.

Elliott, J., Syme, H.M., Reubens, E. and Markwell,

P.J. (2003). Assessment of acid-base status

of cats with naturally occurring chronic renal

failure. J Small Anim Pract. 44: 65–70.

Erslev, A.J. and Besarab, A. (1997). Eritropoetin in the

pathogenesis and treatment of the anemia of

chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 51 : 622-630.

Ettinger, S.J. and Feldman, E.C. (2005). Textbook of

Veterinary Internal Medicine Volume II, VI ed.

St.Louis: Elsvier Saunders. 622-630.

Ettinger, S.J., Benitz, A.M., Ericsson, G.F., Cifelli,

S., Jernigan, A.D., Longhofer, S.L., Trimboli, W.

and Hanson, P.D. (1998). Effects of enalapril

maleate on survival of dogs with naturally acquired

heart failure. The Long-Term Investigation of

Veterinary Enalapril (LIVE) Study Group. J Am

Vet Med Assoc. 213 : 1573–1577.

Yanuartono et al.

Finch, N.C., Syme, H.M. and Elliott J. (2016). Risk

Factors for Development of Chronic Kidney

Disease in Cats. J Vet Intern Med ;30:602–610.

Forrester, D.S., Adams, L.G. and Allen, T.A. (2010).

Chronic kidney disease. In: Hand MS, Thatcher

CD, Remillard RL, et al, eds. Small animal

clinical nutrition, 5th ed. Topeka, Kan: Mark

Morris Institute. : 765–800.

Geddes, R.F., Elliott, J. and Syme, H.M. (2015).

Relationship between plasma fibroblast growth

factor-23 concentration and survival time in

cats with chronic kidney disease. J Vet Intern

Med. 29: 1494–1501.

Grauer, G.F. (2005). Early detection of renal damage

and disease in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North

Am Small Anim Pract 35 :581–596.

Grodecki, K.M., Gains, M.J., Baumal, R., Osmond,

D.H., Cotter, B., Valli, V.E. and Jacobs, R.M.

(1997). Treatment of X-linked hereditary

nephritis in Samoyed dogs with angiotensin

converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. J Comp

Pathol. 117 :209–225.

Hall, J.A., Yerramilli, M., Obare, E., Yu, S. and Jewell,

D.E. (2014). Comparison of serum concentrations

of symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine as

kidney function biomarkers in healthy geriatric

cats fed reduced protein foods enriched with fish

oil, L-carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides.

Vet J. 202(3):588–596.

Hostutler, R.A., DiBartola, S.P., Chew, D.J., Nagode,

L.A., Schenck, P.A., Rajala-Schultz, P.J.

and Drost, W.T. (2006). Comparison of the

effects of daily and intermittent-dose kalsitriol

on serum parathyroid hormone and ionized

calcium concentrations in normal cats and cats

with chronic renal failure. J Vet Intern Med.

(6) :1307-1313.

Houston, D. M. (2016). Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

in Dogs & Cats: An update 2016.

wp.../2016/.../Notes-conférences-Dre-Houston. : 10

Jacob, F., Polzin, D.J., Osborne, C.A., Neaton, J.D.,

Kirk, C.A. and Allen, T.A., (2005). Evaluation

of the association between initial proteinuria

and morbidity rate or death in dogs with

naturally occurring chronic renal failure. J Am

Vet Med Assoc. 226 : 393–400.

Jepson, R. E., Elliott, J. Brodbelt, D. and Syme, H.

M. (2007). “Effect of control of systolic blood

pressure on survival in cats with systemic

hypertension,” Journal of Veterinary Internal

Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3 : 402–409.

Jepson, R.E., Vallance, C., Syme, H.M. and Elliott, J.

(2010). Assessment of urinary N-acetyl-beta-

D-glucosaminidase activity in geriatric cats

with variable plasma creatinine concentrations

with and without azotemia. American Journal

of Veterinary Research 71 : 241–247.

Jones, B.R., Gething, M.A., Badcoe, L.M., Pauli, J.V.

and Davies, E. (1989). Familial progressive

nephropathy in young Bull Terriers. N Z Vet J.


Kaplan, M.A., Canterbury, J.W., Gavellas, G., Jaffe,

D., Bourgoinnie, J.J., Reiss, E. and Bricker

N.S. (1978). The calcemie and phosphaturic

effects of parathyroid hormone in normal and

uremic dog. Metabolism, 27 : 1785–1792.

Keane, W.F. (2000). Proteinuria: Its clinical importance

and role in progressive renal disease. Am J

Kidney Dis. 35(Suppl 1) :S97–S105.

Kidder, A. and Chew, D. (2009). “Treatment options

for hyperphosphatemia in feline CKD: what’s

out there?” J Feline Med Surg., vol. 11, no. 11:


Kimmel, P.L. and Rosenberg, M.E. (2014). Chronic Renal

Disease, Academic Press, San Diego CA : 310–319.

King, J. N., Gunn-Moore, D. A., Tasker, S., Gleadhill,

A. and Strehlau. G. (2006). Tolerability and

efficacy of benazepril in cats with chronic

kidney disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal

Medicine 20(5) : 1054–1064.

Kralova, S., Leva, L. and Toman, M. (2009). Polymorphonuclear

function in naturally occurring

renal failure in dogs. Veterinarni Medicina 54

(5) : 236–243.

Laflamme, D.P. and Hannah, S.S. (2013). Discrepancy

between use of lean body mass or nitrogen

balance to determine protein requirements for

adult cats. J Feline Med Surg. 15: 691–697.

Penyakit Ginjal Kronis pada Anjing dan Kucing: Manajemen Terapi dan Diet

Langston, C.E. (2009) Fluid treatment for renal

failure (Proceedings) www. veterinarycalendar. : 1

– 4. Diakses tanggal 9 Juni 2016.

Lawson, J., Elliott, J., Wheeler-Jones, C., Syme, H,

and Jepson, R. (2015). Review Renal fibrosis

in feline chronic kidney disease: Known

mediators and mechanisms of injury. The

Veterinary Journal 203 :18–26.

Lees, G.E., Helman, R.G., Homco, L.D., Millichamp,

N.J., Hunter, J.F. and Frey M.S. (1998). Early

diagnosis of familial nephropathy in English

cocker spaniels. Journal of the American

Animal Hospital Association: Vol. 34, No. 3,

pp. 189-195.

Lees, G.E., Brown, S.A., Elliott, J., Grauer, G.E. and

Vaden, S.L. (2005). Assessment and management

of proteinuria in dogs and cats: 2004 ACVIM

Forum Consensus Statement (small animal). J

Vet Intern Med. 19 (3) :377-385.

Lenox, C. E. and Bauer, J.E. (2013). Potential Adverse

Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Dogs and

Cats. Review. J Vet Intern Med 27 :217–226.

Littman, M.P. (1994). Spontaneous Systemic Hypertension

in 24 Cats. J Vet Intern Med. 8:79-86.

López-Sendón, J., Swedberg, K., McMurray, J., Tamargo,

J., Maggioni, A.P., Dargie, H., Tendera,

M., Waagstein, F., Kjekshus, J., Lechat, P. and Torp-

Pedersen, C. (2004). Expert consensus document

on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

in cardiovascular disease. The Task Force on

ACE-inhibitors of the European Society of

Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 25 :1454–1470.

MacLeod, J.N., Tetreault, J.W., Lorschy, K.S. and

Gu, D.N. (1998). Expression and bioactivity

of recombinant canine eritropoetin. Am J Vet

Res 59: 1144–1148.

Maddison, J. and Syme, H. (2010). Chronic kidney

disease in dogs and cats II: Principles of

management continue education Irish

Veterinary Journal Vol. 63 No. 2 : 106 – 109.

Maiese, K., Chong, Z.Z. and Shang, Y.C. (2008).

Raves and risks for eritropoetin. Cytokine

Growth Factor Rev. 19 :145-155.

Markovich, J. E., Freeman, L. M., Labato, M. A.

and Cailin, R. (2015). Survey of dietary and

medication practices of owners of cats with

chronic kidney disease. J Feline Med Surg; 17:


Marx, S.J. (2000). Hyperparathyroid and hypoparathyroid

disorders. N Engl J Med 343(25) :1863-1875.

McLeland, S.M., Lunn, K.F., Duncan, C.G., Refsal,

K.R. and Quimby, J.M. (2014). Relationship

among serum creatinine, serum gastrin,

calcium-phosphorus product, and uremic

gastropathy in cats with chronic kidney

disease. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 28: 827-837.

Mitani, S., Yabuki, A., Taniguchi, K. And Yamato,

O. (2013). Association between the intrarenal

renin-angiotensin system and renal injury in

chronic kidney disease of dogs and cats. J Vet

Med Sci. 75 :127–133.

Mizutani, H., Koyama, H., Watanabe, T., Kitagawa,

H., Nakano, M., Kajiwara, K. and. King, J. N.

(2006). Evaluation of the Clinical Efficacy of

Benazepril in the Treatment of Chronic Renal

Insufficiency in Cats. J Vet Intern Med 20


Monroe, W.E., Davenport, D.J. and Saunders G.K.

(1989). Twenty-four hour urinary protein

loss in healthy cats and the urinary proteincreatinine

ratio as an estimate. Am J Vet Res.50


Morar, D., Falcă, C., Moł, T., Cristina, P., Ciulan, V.

and Simiz, F. (2010). Blood Pressure In Cats

With Chronic Renal Failure. Lucrări Stiinłifice

Medicină Veterinară Vol. Xliii (1) Timisoara.

: 319 – 324.

Morar, D., Falcă, C., Moł, T., Cristina, P., Galbenu, P

L. and Ciulan, V. (2009). Effect Of Amlodipine

On Blood Pressure In Cats With Chronic Renal

Failure. Lucrări Stiinłifice Medicină Veterinară

Vol. XLII (2), Timisoara. : 231 – 235

Morgan, R.V. (1986) Systemic hypertension in four

cats: ocular and medical findings. J Am Anim

Hosp Assoc.22 :615-621.

Nabity, M. B. Boggess, M. M., Kashtan, C. E. and.

Lees, G. E. (2007). Day-to-Day Variation of

Yanuartono et al.

the Urine Protein : Creatinine Ratio in Female

Dogs with Stable Glomerular Proteinuria

Caused by X-Linked Hereditary Nephropathy.

J Vet Intern Med. 21 :425–430.

National Research Council. Nutrient requirements

of dogs and cats. Washington, DC: National

Academies Press, 2006. DOI: 10.17226/10668.

Neel, J.A. and Grindem, C.B. (2000). Understanding

and evaluating renal function. Vet Med. :555-

Nelson, R.W. and Couto, C.G. (2009). Small animal

internal medicine, 4th ed. ed. Edinburgh:

Mosby. : 653 – 660.

Nelson, R.W. and Feldman, E.C. (2004). Hypercalcemia

and primary hyperparathyroidism. In:

Feldman EC, Nelson RW, eds. Canine and

Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. 3rd

ed. St. Louis: WB Saunders; :659-715.

O’Neill, D. G., Elliott, J., Church, D.B., McGreevy,

P.D., Thomson, P.C. and Brodbelt, D.C.

(2013). Chronic kidney disease in dogs in UK

veterinary practices: prevalence, risk factors,

and survival. J Vet Intern Med.;27(4):814–821.

Plumb, D.C. (2011). Veterinary Drug Handbook. 7th

ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, USA. 1567.

Polzin, D. J. and Osborne, C. A. (1995). Pathophysiology

of renal failure and uremia. In Canine and Feline

Nephrology and Urology. Eds C. A. Osborne,

D. R. Finco. Philadelphia,Williams & Wilkins.

: 335-367.

Polzin, D., Ross, S. and Osborne, C. (2005). Clinical

benefit of kalsitriol in canine chronic kidney

disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal

Medicine 19: 433 – 437.

Polzin, D.J. (2011) Chronic Kidney Disease in Small

Animals. Veterinary Clinics of North America:

Small Animal Practice 41:15-30.

Polzin, D.J., Osborne, C.A. and Ross S. (2010).

Chronic Kidney Disease. In: Ettinger SJ,

Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of Veterinary

Internal Medicine, 7th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier

Saunders. : 1900-2021.

Polzin, D.J., Osborne, C.A. and Ross, S. (2005).

Chronic kidney disease, in SJ Ettinger,

Feldman EC (eds): Textbook of Veterinary

Internal Medicine, ed 6. Philadelphia, WB

Saunders. : 1756–1785.

Polzin, D.J., Osborne, C.A. and Ross, S. (2005).

Chronic Kidney Disease. In: Ettinger SJ,

Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary

internal medicine : diseases of the dog and

cat, 6th ed. / Stephen J. Ettinger, Edward

C. Feldman. ed. St. Louis, Miss. ; Oxford:

Elsevier Saunder :1756-1785.

Polzin, D.J., Osborne, C.A., Hayden, D.W. and

Stevens, J.B. (1984). Influence of modified

protein diets on morbidity, mortality, and renal

function in dogs with induced chronic renal

failure. Am J Vet Res. 45 :506- 517.

Polzin, D.J., Ross, S. and Osborne, C.A. (2009).

Kalsitriol. In: Bonagura J.D. & Twedt D.C.

(Eds), Kirk´s Current Veterinary Therapy. XIV.

Saunders Elsevier, St Louis, Missouri. : 892-895.

Powell, L.L. (2014). Top 5 Indications For Fluid

Therapy. : 10

– 12. Diakses tanggal 9 Juni 2016

Price, S. A. and Wilson, L. M. (2005). Patofisiologi:

konsep klinis proses-proses penyakit (6 ed.).

Jakarta: EGC.

Quimby, J. and Lappin, M. (2016). Evaluating

Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal

Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease. J

Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 52(1) :8-12.

Randolph, J. E., Scarlett, J., Stokol, T. and Macleod,

J. N. (2004). Clinical efficacy and safety of

recombinant canine eritropoetin in dogs with

anemia of chronic renal failure and dogs with

recombinant human eritropoetin-induced red

cell aplasia. J Vet Intern Med 18 : 81-91.

Randolph, J.E., Scarlett, J.M., Stokol, T., Saunders,

K.M. MacLeod, J.N. (2004). Expression,

bioactivity, and clinical assessment of

recombinant feline eritropoetin. Am J Vet Res

: 1355–1366.

Reynolds, B.S.and Lefebvre, H.P. (2013). Feline

CKD: Pathophysiology and risk factors – What

Penyakit Ginjal Kronis pada Anjing dan Kucing: Manajemen Terapi dan Diet

do we know? Journal of Feline Medicine and

Surgery 15 (Suppl. 1), 3–14.

Ross, S. (2008). Diagnosis and Management of

Chronic Kidney Disease in Dogs and Cats

Proceedings, The 15th Congress of FAVA

FAVA -OIE Joint Symposium on Emerging

Diseases Bangkok, Thailand : S89 – S93.

Roudebush, P., Polzin, D. J., Adams, L. G., Towell, T.

L. and Forrester, S. D. (2010). REVIEW. An

evidence based review of therapies for canine

chronic kidney disease. Journal of Small

Animal Practice 51 : 244–252.

Roudebush, P., Polzin, D. J., Ross, S. J., Towell, T.

L., Adams, L. G. and Forrester, S. D. (2009).

Therapies for feline chronic kidney disease.

What is the evidence? Journal of Feline

Medicine & Surgery 11 : 195-210.

Ruggenenti, P., Cravedi, P. and Remuzzi, G. (2012).

Mechanisms and treatment of CKD. J Am Soc

Nephrol. 23: 1917–1928.

Savica, V., Calò, L. A., Monardo, P., Davis, P.

A., Granata, A., Santoro, D., Savica, R.,

Musolino, R., Comelli, M. C. and Bellinghieri,

G. (2009). “Salivary phosphate- ` binding

chewing gum reduces hyperphosphatemia in

dialysis patients,” Journal of the American

Society of Nephrology, vol. 20, no. 3: 639–644.

Schlondorff, D.O. (2008). Overview of factors

contributing to the pathophysiology of

progressive renal disease. Kidney Int. 74: 860-

Schoolwerth, A.C., Kaneko, T.M., Sedlacek, M.,

Block, C.A. and Remillard, B.D. (2006). Acidbase

disturbances in the intensive care unit:

metabolic acidosis. Semin Dial. 19 :492-495.

Sharon, K., Theisen, S.K., DiBartola, S.P., Radin, J.M.,

Chew, D.J., Tony Buffington, C.A. and Dow,

S.W. (1997). Muscle Potassium Content and

Potassium Gluconate Supplementation in

Normokalemic Cats With Naturally Occurring

Chronic Renal Failure. J Vet Intern Med 11 :


Silver, J., Russell, J. and Sherwood, L.M. (1985).

Regulation by vitamin D metabolites of

messenger ribonucleic acid for preproparathyroid

hormone in isolated bovine parathyroid cells.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82 : 4270–4273.

Smets, P.M., Meyer, E., Maddens, B.E., Duchateau,

L.and Daminet, S. (2010). Urinary markers in

healthy young and aged dogs and dogs with

chronic kidney disease. Journal of Veterinary

Internal Medicine 24 : 65–72.

Sparkes, A. H., Caney, S., Chalhoub, S., Elliott,

J., Finch, N., Gajanayake, I., Langston,

C., Lefebvre, H.P., White, J. and Quimby, J.

(2016). ISFM Consensus Guidelines on the

Diagnosis and Management of Feline Chronic

Kidney Disease. Journal of Feline Medicine

and Surgery 18 : 219–239.

Surrena, H. (ed). 2010. Handbook for Brunner &

Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical- Surgical 12th

edition. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott

Williams & Wilkins, 530 Walnut Street,

Philadelphia, PA 19106. 590.

Sweitzer, N.K. (2003). What Is an Angiotensin

Converting Enzyme Inhibitor? Circulation.


Syme, H.M., Markwell, P.J., Pfeiffer, D. and

Elliott, J. (2006). Survival of cats with

naturally occurring chronic renal failure is

related to severity of proteinuria. J Vet Intern

Med. 20 :528–535.

Takahashi, F., Furuichi, T., Yorozu, K., Kawata,

S., Kitamura, H., Kubodera, N. and

Slatopolsky, E. (2002). Effects of i.v. and

oral 1,25-dihydroxy-22-oxavitamin D3 on

secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs with

chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant

[Suppl 10] : 46–52.

Thibodeau, GA. (1999). Anatomy and Physiology.

St. Louis, MO. Mosby. : 822-846.

Tomasello, S. (2008). Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

and Chronic Kidney Disease. Diabetes

Spectrum 21(1): 19-25.

Vaden, S.L. (2005). Glomerular disease. In:

Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, editors. Textbook of

Veterinary Internal Medicine. 6th ed. St Louis,

Missouri: Saunders (Elsevier) : 1786 -1800.

Yanuartono et al.

Walker, D., Syme, H.M., Markwell, P. and Elliott, J.

(2004). Predictors of survival in healthy, nonazotaemic

cats. J Vet Intern Med. 18 : 417.

Watanabe, T. And Mishina, M. (2007). Effects

of Benazepril Hydrochloride in Cats with

Experimentally Induced or Spontaneously

Occurring Chronic Renal Failure J. Vet. Med.

Sci. 69 (10) : 1015–1023.

Wellman, M.L., DiBartola, S.P. and Kohn, C.W.

(2012). Applied physiology of body fluids in

dogs and cats. In: DiBartola SP, ed. Fluid,

electrolyte, and acid-base disorders in small

animal practice. 4th ed. St. Louis (MO):

Elsevier Saunders :15.

Wolf, A.M. (2015). Chronic Progressive Renal

Disease in the Cat: Recognition and


Yabuki, A., Mizukami, K., Sawa, M., Mitani, S. and

Yamato, O. (2011). Early Stage of Chronic

Kidney Disease with Renal Injury Caused

by Hypertension in a Dog. Case Reports in

Veterinary Medicine Vol. 1, Article ID 149648,

: 1 – 4.

Yu, S. and Robinson, P.I. (2006). Dietary supplements

of vitamins E and C and beta-carotene reduce

oxidative stress in cats with renal insufficiency.

Vet Res Commun. 30 : 403–413.

Yu, S., Gross, K. L. and Allen, T. A. (2006). A renal

food supplemented with vitamins E, C and

beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress and

improves kidney function in client-owned

dogs with stages 2 or 3 kidney disease. Journal

of Veterinary Internal Medicine 20 : 1537.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 576 | views : 1943


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Sain Veteriner

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Sain Veteriner Indexed by:

Copyright of JSV (Jurnal Sain Veteriner) ISSN 0126-0421 (print), ISSN 2407-3733 (online).

Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Jl. Fauna No.2, Karangmalang, Yogyakarta

Phone: 0274-560862

Fax: 0274-560861


Jurnal Sain Veteriner is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


web stats View My Stats