Sintesis polivinil alkohol tersulfonasi sebagai katalis dalam produksi metil ester: review

Maria Gracella Irawan(1), Henky Muljana(2*), Asaf Kleopas Sugih(3), Usman Oemar(4), Jessica Atin(5)

(1) Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Bandung, Jl. Ciumbuleuit No. 94, Hegarmanah, Kec. Cidadap, Kota Bandung, Jawa Barat, 40141, Indonesia
(2) Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Bandung, Jl. Ciumbuleuit No. 94, Hegarmanah, Kec. Cidadap, Kota Bandung, Jawa Barat, 40141, Indonesia
(3) Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Bandung, Jl. Ciumbuleuit No. 94, Hegarmanah, Kec. Cidadap, Kota Bandung, Jawa Barat, 40141, Indonesia
(4) PT. Ecogreen Oleochemicals, Jl. Raya Pelabuhan Kabil Kav. 1, Batam, Indonesia
(5) PT. Ecogreen Oleochemicals, Jl. Raya Pelabuhan Kabil Kav. 1, Batam, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author



Sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) can be used as a heterogeneous catalyst in esterification or transesterification reactions during methyl ester production. This catalyst with PVA support has the potential to be used commercially like Amberlyst 46. However, there are several drawbacks in the conventional methods to produce sulfonated PVA compared to Amberlyst 46. In this paper, various processes of sulfonated PVA synthesis will be discussed including the advantages and disadvantages compared to Amberlyst 46. The synthesis of sulfonated PVA catalysts can be carried out using sulfosuccinate acid reagents or other acid reagents that have sulfonic groups that act as the active sites of the catalysts. The use of sulfosuccinate acid as the reagent produces catalysts with better catalytic activity, but the resulting product is not in granule form like Amberlyst 46 and can only be used continuously for seven times. The use of chlorosulfonic acid as the reagent resulted in granular catalysts. However, the catalyst has less catalytic activity and stability, and the reagent has a relatively high environmental impact. For the synthesis performed using sulfuric acid as the reagent, no result regarding catalytic activity has been reported elsewhere. The blending of the catalyst with other polymers resulted in improvements in the thermal stability and mechanical strength of the sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol. After a careful review of the procedures, we propose blending or double cross-linking processes combined with sulfonated PVA synthesis as a promising method to increase the thermal stability and mechanical strength of the catalysts. However, it is necessary to perform further laboratory validations on the catalytic activity of the catalysts produced from the combined method because blending may reduce the acid capacity of the catalyst.

Keywords: esterification catalyst, polyvinyl alcohol, sulfonation



Polivinil alkohol (PVA) tersulfonasi dapat digunakan sebagai katalis heterogen dalam reaksi esterifikasi atau transesterifikasi dalam produksi metil ester. Katalis dengan support polivinil alkohol ini berpotensi untuk digunakan secara komersial seperti Amberlyst 46. Akan tetapi, PVA tersulfonasi yang disintesis secara konvensional masih memiliki banyak kekurangan dibandingkan dengan Amberlyst 46. Pada kajian ini akan dibahas mengenai berbagai alternatif proses sintesis PVA tersulfonasi termasuk kelebihan dan kekurangannya jika dibandingkan dengan Amberlyst 46. Sintesis katalis PVA tersulfonasi dapat dilakukan menggunakan reagen asam sulfosuksinat (SSA) maupun reagen asam lainnya yang memiliki gugus sulfonat yang berperan sebagai situs aktif katalis. Penggunaan reagen SSA menghasilkan katalis dengan aktivitas katalitik yang baik namun produk yang dihasilkan tidak berbentuk granula seperti Amberlyst 46 dan hanya dapat digunakan ulang sebanyak tujuh kali. Penggunaan reagen asam klorosulfonat dapat menghasilkan katalis berbentuk granula, namun memiliki aktivitas katalitik dan kestabilan kurang baik, serta reagen yang digunakan cukup berbahaya. Untuk proses sintesis menggunakan reagen asam sulfat belum ada hasil mengenai aktivitas katalitik, tetapi dengan adanya blending dengan polimer lain dapat memperbaiki kestabilan termal dan kekuatan mekanik PVA tersulfonasi yang dihasilkan. Proses blending atau double cross-linking yang digabung dengan sintesis PVA tersulfonasi dapat meningkatkan kestabilan termal dan kekuatan mekanik sehingga metode gabungan ini diyakini sebagai metode yang paling potensial dilakukan untuk menghasilkan PVA tersulfonasi dengan karakteristik terbaik. Meskipun demikian, perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut disertai tahapan pengujian aktivitas katalitik pada katalis yang dihasilkan dari metode gabungan karena kemungkinan proses blending dapat mengurangi kapasitas asam pada katalis.

Kata kunci: katalis esterifikasi; polivinil alkohol; sulfonasi

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