Optimization of cotton fabrics dyeing process using various natural dye extracts

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.70397

Edia Rahayuningsih(1*), Taranipa Marfitania(2), Taranipa Marfitania(3), Mukmin Sapto Pamungkas(4), Mukmin Sapto Pamungkas(5), Wachid Siti Fatimah(6), Wachid Siti Fatimah(7)

(1) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl Grafika No.2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia Indonesia Natural Dye Institute (INDI), Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl Kaliurang Km.4 Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 565223, Indonesia
(2) Indonesia Natural Dye Institute (INDI), Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl Kaliurang Km.4 Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 565223, Indonesia
(3) Indonesia Natural Dye Institute (INDI), Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl Kaliurang Km.4 Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 565223, Indonesia
(4) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl Grafika No.2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(5) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl Grafika No.2, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia Indonesia Natural Dye Institute (INDI), Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl Kaliurang Km.4 Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 565223, Indonesia
(6) Indonesia Natural Dye Institute (INDI), Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl Kaliurang Km.4 Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 565223, Indonesia
(7) Indonesia Natural Dye Institute (INDI), Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jl Kaliurang Km.4 Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 565223, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


A B S T R A C T

Efforts to substitute synthetic dyes on fabrics for natural dyes are currently increasing. Research and innovation are extremely needed to support those attempts so that the quality of natural dyes is more competitive than synthetic dyes. This study aims to optimize the dyeing parameters of cotton fabrics using natural dye extracts derived from the barks of Tegeran (Cudrania javanensis), Merbau (Intsia bijuga), Tingi (Ceriops tagal), and Jambal (Peltophorum pterocarpum), as well as Jolawe (Terminalia bellirica) fruit peel. Varied dyeing parameters included dye concentration, dyeing time and temperature, and material to liquor ratio (MLR). The fixative solutions used were alum, lime, and iron (II) sulfate. The optimized parameters were based on the values of color depth and evenness, measured colorimetrically. Furthermore, the obtained results of the dyeing process under optimized conditions were analyzed for color quality by measuring color coordinates as well as the values of color strength (K/S), washing fastness, and light fastness. The results showed that the optimal dyeing conditions for all natural dye extracts used were the code A extract concentrations (0.0113 g/mL of Tegeran; 0.0115 g/mL of Merbau; 0.0204 g/mL of Jambal; and 0.0582 g/mL of Jolawe), dyeing at 28°C, dyeing time of 30 minutes, and the MLR of 1:30. The resulting color variations were brown, gray, and golden yellow for the Tegeran extract with alum fixative. The highest K/S value was 5.56 for the fabric dyed in Tegeran extract with iron (II) sulfate fixative solution. The washing fastness values for Merbau, Tingi, Jambal, and Jolawe were 3-4 (fairly good) to 4-5 (excellent). Meanwhile, the light fastness values for all dyes were between 4 (good) and 5 (excellent). Overall, the standard procedure for cotton fabric dyeing that meets the minimum standards for textile products is obtained.

Keywords: cotton fabric; color quality; natural dyes; optimization; standard procedure for dyeing

A B S T R A K

Usaha substitusi penggunaan pewarna sintetis pada kain dengan pewarna alami semakin meningkat belakangan ini. Hal ini perlu didukung dengan penelitian dan inovasi agar kualitas pewarna alami lebih kompetitif terhadap pewarna sintetis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimalkan parameter pewarnaan kain katun dengan ekstrak pewarna alami dari kulit kayu Tegeran (Cudrania javanensis), Merbau (Intsia bijuga), Tingi (Ceriops tagal), Jambal (Peltophorum pterocarpum), dan kulit buah Jolawe (Terminalia bellirica). Parameter pewarnaan yang divariasikan antara lain konsentrasi pewarna, waktu dan suhu pewarnaan, serta rasio kain dengan volume larutan fiksator. Larutan fiksator yang digunakan adalah tawas, kapur, dan tunjung. Paramater terikat yang dioptimasikan didasarkan pada nilai ketuaan dan kerataan warna yang diukur secara kolorimetri. Selanjutnya hasil pewarnaan dengan kondisi yang teroptimasi dianalisis kualitas warna melalui pengukuran koordinat warna, nilai kekuatan warna(K/S), dan nilai tahan luntur terhadap pencucian dan cahaya. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa parameter pewarnaan yang optimal untuk semua ekstrak pewarna alami yang digunakan adalah pada konsentrasi ekstrak dengan kode A (0,0113 g/mL Tegeran; 0,0115 g/mL Merbau; 0,0204 g/mL Jambal; dan 0,0582 g/mL Jolawe), pewarnaan pada suhu kamar, waktu pewarnaan 30 menit, dan rasio kain dengan volume larutan fiksator 1:30. Variasi warna yang dihasilkan adalah warna cokelat, abu-abu, dan kuning emas untuk ekstrak tegeran dengan fiksator tawas. Nilai K/S tertinggi sebesar 5,56 untuk kain yang diwarnai dengan ekstrak Tegeran dengan larutan fiksator tunjung. Nilai uji kelunturan terhadap pencucian untuk Merbau, Tingi, Jambal, dan Jolawe adalah 3-4 (cukup baik) sampai dengan 4-5 (sangat baik). Nilai kelunturan terhadap cahaya untuk semua jenis pewarna adalah antara 4 (baik) sampai dengan 5 (sangat baik). Secara keseluruhan, didapatkan prosedur standar pewarnaan kain katun yang memenuhi standar minimum produk tekstil.

Kata kunci: kain katun; kualitas warna; optimasi; pewarna alami; standar pewarnaan


 


Keywords


cotton fabric, color quality, natural dyes, optimization, standard procedure for dyeing

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.70397

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