Modifikasi Proses Pengolahan Boiler Feed Water (BFW) dari All Volatile Treatment (AVT) menjadi Oxygenated Treatment (OT) untuk Produksi Listrik Ramah Lingkungan

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.65976

Sigit Setyawan(1), Ilham Satria Raditya Putra(2), Agik Dwika Putra(3), Rochim Bakti Cahyono(4*)

(1) PT Cirebon Electric Power, Jl. Raya Cirebon – Tegal Km. 8,5, Kanci Kulon, Astanajapura, Cirebon, Jawa Barat 45181, Indonesia
(2) PT Cirebon Electric Power, Jl. Raya Cirebon – Tegal Km. 8,5, Kanci Kulon, Astanajapura, Cirebon, Jawa Barat 45181, Indonesia
(3) PT Cirebon Electric Power, Jl. Raya Cirebon – Tegal Km. 8,5, Kanci Kulon, Astanajapura, Cirebon, Jawa Barat 45181, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl Grafika No. 2 Kampus UGM, 55281 Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


In power plant industries, boiler feed water (BFW) quality becomes the main parameter for steam generation, which is used for electricity production. To generate standard BFW for power plants, each impurity within water resources should be removed to prevent corrosion and scale deposition by several processes such as sedimentation, coagulation, polishing, and deaeration. Operation conditions that involved high temperature would trigger corrosion as a crucial factor in the maintenance and practical lifetime of the equipment. In the beginning of the operation, PT. Cirebon Electric Power (CEP) used All Volatile Treatment–Reduction (AVT-R) by injection of both ammonia and hydrazine. In order to optimize the operation, the BFW treatment was changed to All Volatile Treatment–Oxidation (AVT-O) that only uses of ammonia and deaerator for removing the dissolved gas. Based on the actual evaluation, AVT technology showed less performance related to corrosion prevention and high chemical consumption. Therefore, PT. CEP tried to implement modification in the BFW treatment, which is AVT technology to Oxygenated Treatment (OT). This paper is to evaluate the effect of those modifications on corrosion prevention and resource-energy saving. The modification into OT showed valuable results that decrease concentration of dissolved Fe from 1 ppb to 0.1 ppb in the deaerator outlet stream. This data reveals that good corrosion prevention can be achieved through the creation of passive layers, hematite Fe2O3. Oxygen injection into the water circulation system yielded an oxidation atmosphere so that the passive layer, Fe2O3, was formed. In addition to corrosion prevention, this modification also cut the amount of ammonia injection into the system from 2 ppm to 0.12 ppm. Reduction of that ammonia injection provides other benefits such as decreasing the volume of resin regeneration, which becomes only twice a month. This situation also created other benefits such as reducing the regeneration water, chemicals, and wastewater. Thus, the modification could establish the electricity production by PT. CEP more environmentally friendly and sustainable.


A B S T R A K

Pada operasi PLTU, kualitas boiler feed water (BFW) menjadi parameter yang krusial untuk menghasilkan steam yang akan digunakan untuk memproduksi listrik. Untuk mendapatkan BFW sesuai dengan standar yang ada, maka pengotor di dalam air baku industri harus dihilangkan karena dapat menyebabkan korosi dan pembentukan kerak, baik pada pipa maupun peralatan. Kondisi operasi yang melibatkan steam pada suhu tinggi menyebabkan korosi menjadi masalah yang krusial terutama terkait dengan maintenance dan umur efektif pabrik. Pada awal berdirinya, PT. Cirebon Electric Power (CEP) menggunakan teknologi All Volatile Treatment–Reduction (AVT-R) dengan injeksi amonia dan hidrazin. Selanjutnya, dilakukan optimasi melalui perubahan proses menjadi All Volatile Treatment–Oxidation (AVT-O) dengan hanya menginjeksikan amonia dan mengoptimalkan fungsi deaerator untuk menghilangkan pengotor dissolved gas. Berdasarkan data lapangan, teknologi AVT yang digunakan kurang memberikan pencegahan korosi yang baik dan juga jumlah bahan kimia yang digunakan masih relatif banyak. Agar lebih ramah lingkungan dan handal, PT. CEP berusaha untuk melakukan modifikasi terhadap pengolahan boiler feed water (BFW) dari yang semula menggunakan teknologi AVT-O menjadi Oxygenated Treatment (OT). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi dampak modifikasi sistem AVT menjadi OT pada pencegahan korosi dan juga penghematan sumber daya. Modifikasi sistem AVT-O menjadi OT berhasil menurunkan konsentrasi dissolved Fe dari 1 ppb menjadi 0,1 ppb pada BFW. Hal ini menunjukkan terjadinya peningkatan pencegahan korosi melalui pembentukan double protective layer yang merupakan kombinasi magnetite (Fe3O4) dan hematite (Fe2O3). Injeksi oksigen ke dalam sistem mengubah kondisi air menjadi suasana oksidasi sehingga mampu mengubah dan membentuk lapisan baru sebagai pencegahan korosi. Selain pencegahan korosi, modifikasi ini juga berhasil menurunkan jumlah injeksi amonia dari 2 ppm menjadi 0,12 ppm dalam siklus air yang ada. Penurunan jumlah injeksi amonia ini akan memberikan keuntungan beruntun berupa berkurangnya frekuensi regenerasi resin dari semula 8 menjadi 2 kali perbulan. Kondisi ini akan menghasilkan penghematan sumber daya berupa kebutuhan air untuk regenerasi, bahan kimia amonia, dan beban pencemaran. Oleh karena itu, modifikasi ini telah membuat proses produksi listrik di PT. CEP lebih ramah lingkungan dan berkelanjutan.

Kata kunci: All Volatile Treatment (AVT); efisiensi energi; korosi boiler; Oxygenated Treatment (OT)


Keywords


All Volatile Treatment (AVT); boiler corrosion; energy efficiency; Oxygenated Treatment (OT)

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.65976

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