Perbandingan Performa Refrigeran Propana dan Amonia pada Siklus Refrigerasi Dew Point Control Unit (DPCU)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.65973

Mochammad Syahrir Isdiawan(1*), Aditya Nurfebriartanto(2), Rafitri Rusmala(3)

(1) Program Studi Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesha No. 10, Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia 40132
(2) Program Studi Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jalan Ganesha No. 10, Bandung, Jawa Barat, Indonesia 40132
(3) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik Kampus Baru, Universitas Indonesia Jalan Fuad Hasan, Depok, Jawa Barat 16424
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Natural gas, that has been processed and met certain specifications, is sent to consumers through pipeline. Gas condensation within the pipeline should be avoided because it has negative impacts. Hydrocarbon dew point is a measure of the easiness of gas condensation. To meet the hydrocarbon dew point, heavy hydrocarbon should be extracted in dew point control unit (DPCU). The extraction is done by gas cooling in gas chiller followed by separating the liquid formed in low temperature separator (LTS). The gas chiller functions as an evaporator in the DPCU refrigeration cycle. Propane is a common refrigerant in the DPCU. In addition, ammonia is also a potential refrigerant due to its normal boiling point being close to the hydrocarbon dew point. Refrigeration cycle performance depends on evaporator temperature, condensor temperature, and the inherent pressure-enthalpy (PH) characteristic of the selected refrigerant. This study aimed to compare the performance from ammonia and propane against the change of evaporator and condenser temperature. This study was a dry research using Aspen Hysys V11.0 simulation software (academic license). The refrigeration cycle was a simple cycle with fixed variables in the form of evaporator load, saturated liquid at outlet condenser, and saturated vapour at outlet evaporator. This study indicated that at the same evaporator load, evaporator temperature, and condenser temperature, ammonia refrigeration cycle was better than the propane because coefficient of performance (COP) of ammonia was higher than propane. This study also modeled COP changes of propane and ammonia as mathematical equation. Quantitatively, it appeared that COP of propane was more sensitive than ammonia against both evaporator and condenser temperature changes.

Keywords: ammonia; condenser; evaporator; propane; refrigeration cycle; simulation


A B S T R A K

Gas alam yang telah diolah dan sesuai spesifikasinya dikirim ke konsumen melalui pipa. Kondensasi gas dalam pipa harus dihindari karena menimbulkan dampak negatif. Titik embun hidrokarbon menjadi ukuran kemudahan proses kondensasi gas. Untuk mencapai titik embun hidrokarbon yang diinginkan, maka hidrokarbon berat harus diekstraksi di dew point control unit (DPCU). Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan cara mendinginkan gas di gas chiller lalu memisahkan cairan yang terbentuk di low temperature separator (LTS). Gas chiller tersebut berfungsi sebagai evaporator pada siklus refrigerasi DPCU. Propana adalah refrigeran yang umum digunakan di DPCU. Selain itu, amonia juga menjadi refrigeran yang potensial karena kedekatan titik didih normalnya terhadap titik embun hidrokarbon yang diinginkan. Performa siklus refrigerasi dipengaruhi oleh temperatur evaporator, temperatur kondensor, dan karakteristik tekanan-entalpi (PH) yang melekat pada refrigeran yang dipilih. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan performa siklus refrigerasi propana dan amonia terhadap perubahan temperatur evaporator dan kondensor. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kering yang menggunakan perangkat lunak simulasi Aspen Hysys V11.0 (lisensi akademik). Siklus refrigerasi yang digunakan adalah simple cycle dengan variabel tetap berupa beban evaporator, kondisi cair jenuh outlet kondensor, dan kondisi uap jenuh outlet evaporator. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada beban evaporator, temperatur evaporator, dan temperatur kondensor yang sama, maka siklus refrigerasi amonia lebih baik dari propana karena COP amonia lebih tinggi dari propana. Penelitian ini juga memodelkan nilai COP propana dan amonia sebagai persamaan matematika. Secara kuantitatif, terlihat bahwa COP amonia lebih stabil dari propana terhadap perubahan temperatur evaporator dan kondensor.

Kata kunci: amonia; evaporator; kondensor; propana; siklus refrigerasi; simulasi



Keywords


ammonia; condenser; evaporator; propane; refrigeration cycle; simulation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.65973

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