Kinetika Reaksi Heterogen Etanolisis Minyak Jarak Kepyar (Ricinus communis) dengan Katalisator Zeolit Klinoptilolit

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.561

Ratna Sri Harjanti(1*), Sarto(2)

(1) 
(2) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Minyak jarak kepyar mempunyai potensi untuk dijadikan biodiesel melalui proses alkoholisis katalitik. Zeolit alam klinoptilolit berpotensi digunakan sebagai katalisator dalam alkoholisis tersebut. Pada penelitian ini, alkoholisis minyak jarak dilakukan pada suhu tinggi dengan katalisator zeolit alam klinoptilolit dalam sebuah reaktor autoklaf yang dilengkapi dengan manometer, termometer, kran pengambil cuplikan, dan pemanas. Data percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pada kisaran waktu tertentu, peningkatan suhu dan putaran autoklaf mengakibatkan peningkatan konversi gliserid. Hasil analisis kinetika reaksi menunjukkan bahwa reaksi kimia pada permukaan katalisator merupakan langkah yang mengendalikan kecepatan reaksi keseluruhan. Kondisi proses yang relatif optimum terjadi pada waktu 60 menit, suhu 120°C dan kecepatan putaran autoklaf 110 rpm dengan perbandingan alkohol-minyak 12,56 mgek/mgek dan prosentase katalisator 2,56 %. Pada keadaan ini konversi gliserid mencapai 0,73 bagian. Ester dari minyak jarak yang diperoleh memiliki viskositas 8,0 cst, titik tuang -16,6°F, titik nyala 215°F, warna ASTM 1, dan nilai kalor 19.119 Btu/lb.

Kata kunci: alkoholisis, klinoptilolit, minyak jarak, zeolit

Castor oil of Ricinus communis has potential as a raw material for biodiesel synthesis through catalytic alcoholysis process. Clinoptilolite type natural zeolite is one of solid catalysts that can be used in the alcoholysis process. In the present work, the alcoholysis was carried out in an autoclave reactor equipped with manometer, thermometer, sampling valve, and heating element. The reaction occurred at elevated temperatures with the use of clinoptilolite as a solid catalyst. The experimental data indicated that in a certain reaction time range, an increase in temperature and autoclave rotation speed lead to the increase of reaction conversion. Calculation results showed that the overall reaction rate was controlled by chemical reaction at the catalyst surface. The optimum condition of the alcoholysis process was obtained at reaction time of 60 minutes, temperature of 120C and autoclave rotation of 110 rpm with the use of alcohol-oil ratio of 12.56 mgek / mgek and 2.56% (w/w) catalyst. At the optimum condition, the conversion could reach as high as 0.73. The obtaining esters had a viscosity of 8.0 cst, -16.6°F pour point, 215°F flash point, ASTM color of 1, and heating value of 19,119 Btu/lb.

Keywords: alcoholysis, clinoptilolite, castor oil, zeolite

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.561

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