Pengaruh Penambahan Nutrisi Terhadap Efektifitas Fitoremediasi Menggunakan Tanaman Enceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes) Terhadap Limbah Orto-Klorofenol

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.559

Is Sulistyati Purwaningsih(1*)

(1) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Limbah pabrik pulp dan kertas mengandung senyawa-senyawa fenol dan klorofenol yang sangat berbahaya jika dibiarkan berada di perairan. Senyawa-senyawa tersebut sangat beracun dan sulit untuk didegradasi. Fitoremediasi terbukti merupakan metode yang efektif dan ekonomis untuk mereduksi konsentrasi polutan di sistem perairan. Pada penelitian ini tanaman enceng gondok dipilih untuk meremediasi air yang terkontaminasi o-klorofenol. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan 2 reaktor batch yang diberi perlakuan berbeda, yaitu tanpa dan dengan penambahan nutrisi dengan variasi konsentrasi kontaminan 0 hingga 20 mg/L. Remediasi o-klorofenol oleh enceng gondok dipengaruhi oleh besarnya konsentrasi awal o-klorofenol. Semakin besar konsentrasi awal o-klorofenol maka laju remediasi semakin besar. Dari penelitian diperoleh remediasi o-klorofenol terbesar terjadi pada konsentrasi awal 20 mg/L, laju remediasinya 4,59 kali lebih cepat daripada konsentrasi awal 5 mg/L. Laju remediasi o-klorofenol dengan penambahan nutrisi lebih cepat daripada tanpa penambahan nutrisi. Dari penelitian diperoleh remediasi o-klorofenol dengan penambahan nutrisi lebih cepat 1,23–1,33 kali daripada fitoremediasi tanpa penambahan nutrisi. Selain itu, pada fitoremediasi selama 48 jam setiap 500 gram enceng gondok mampu menjerap o-klorofenol sebanyak 41-59% dari konsentrasi awalnya.

Kata kunci: enceng gondok, fitoremediasi, o-klorofenol, nutrisi.

Pulp and paper wastewater contains a vast variety of chemicals including phenolic and chlorinated phenolic compounds. The toxicity of these two phenolic compounds in water has led to environmental problem due to resistance or complete recalcitrance to metabolic breakdown by the majority of living species. Phytoremediation is one of the most effective and economic way of reducing the toxic compounds in wastewater system. In this research enceng gondok (Eichhornia crassipes) was choosen as ortho-chorophenol phytoremediation agent.
Experiment was conducted in 2 batch reactor systems; one reactor without nutrient addition and the other one with 1.06 mg/L of NPK addition as nutrition. Both systems were carried out over range of pollutan concentration of 0 -20 mg/L.
Experimental result showed that the remediation of o-chlorophenol using enceng gondok was influenced by the initial concentration of pollutan. The rate of o-chlorophenol uptake increased when o-chlorophenol concentration higher. It was shown that the highest o-chlorophenol uptake rate reached at 20 mg/L of initial concentration, in which its uptake rate was 4.59 times faster compared to uptake rate at 5 mg/L of o-chlorophenol concentration . With nutrient addition, the rate of o-chlorophenol uptake was 1.23 – 1.33 times faster than the process without nutrient addition. Experimental result also indicated that after 48 hours remediation , every five hundreds (500) gram of enceng gondok was able to adsorp more than 50 % of o-chlorophenol from its initial concentration.

Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes, o-chlorophenol, phytoremediation, nutrion

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.559

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