Kinetika Reaksi Esterifikasi Palm Fatty Acid Distilate (PFAD) menjadi Biodiesel dengan Katalis Zeolit-Zirkonia Tersulfatasi

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.4953

Masduki(1*), Sutijan(2), Arief Budiman(3)

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract



Krisis energi karena menipisnya cadangan minyak bumi mendorong manusia untuk berinovasi menciptakan sumber energi alternatif. Salah satu sumber energi alternatif yang potensial untuk dikembangkan adalah biodiesel. Produksi biodiesel skala besar terkendala oleh harga bahan baku yang mahal dan cenderung bersaing dengan kebutuhan pangan. Oleh karena itu perlu dicari bahan baku yang lebih murah dan tidak bersaing dengan kebutuhan pangan. Salah satu bahan yang dapat memenuhi kepentingan tersebut adalah Palm Fatty Acid Distilate (PFAD). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari kinetika reaksi esterifikasi PFAD menjadi biodiesel dengan katalis zeolit zirkonia tersulfatasi.
Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) sebagai sumber asam lemak diesterifikasi menjadi biodiesel di dalam labu leher tiga yang dilengkapi dengan pemanas, pengaduk dan sistem refluks. Untuk memperoleh data kinetika, sampel diambil pada interval waktu 10 menit untuk dianalisis konversi asam lemaknya. Model kinetika reaksi esterifikasi PFAD menjadi biodiesel didekati dengan reaksi pseudo-homogen orde satu dan reaksi heterogen katalitik.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kedua model kinetika yang diusulkan cukup sesuai dengan data percobaan. Hasil perhitungan model reaksi pseudo-homogen menghasilkan energi aktivasi sebesar 11,60 kJ/mol dan faktor pre-eksponensial sebesar 5,82.1016 s-1. Sedangkan untuk model reaksi heterogen katalitik diperoleh energi aktivasi sebesar 950,46 kJ/mol dan faktor pre-eksponensial sebesar 4,11 x 1010 dm6.gkat-1.mol-1.s-1. Konversi reaksi maksimum sebesar 75,68% diperoleh pada waktu reaksi 80 menit, suhu reaksi 65°C dengan konsentrasi katalis 3% dan perbandingan mol PFAD:metanol = 1:10.

Kata kunci: biodiesel, kinetika, esterifikasi, palm fatty acid distillate, zeolit zirkonia tersulfatasi.

Energy crisis due to depletion of crude oil resources has been a motivation for alternative energy search. Biodiesel becomes a potential among other alternative energy sources. However, large scale biodiesel production is hampered by the raw materials which become expensive and tent to compete with the source of food needs. Therefore, a search for an alternative inexpensive raw material is necessary. Palm fatty acid distilate (PFAD) is one of alternative raw materials can be utilized. The present work objective was to investigate reaction kinetics of PFAD esterification for biodiesel with zirconium sulphated zeolite as catalyst.
PFAD as a source of fatty acid underwent esterification to produce biodiesel in a three necked flask equiped with heater, stirrer and reflux condensor. In order to study the reaction kinetics, samples were collected consecutively every 10 minutes and the conversion of the fatty acid in each sample was determined. Here, two esterification reaction models were proposed i.e. pseudo-homogeneous first order reaction model and heterogeneous catalytic reaction model.
The results showed that calculated conversion for both proposed models were in a good agreement with the experimental data. The pseudo homogeneous reaction model has an activation energy of 11.60 kJ/mole and a pre-exponential factor of 5.821016 s1. Whereas, the heterogeneous reaction model has an activation energy of 950.46 kJ/mole and pre-exponential factor of 4.111010 dm6.g cat1.mol1.s1. The maximum conversion of 75.68% was obtained at 80 minute reaction time, at 65C with the use of 3% catalyst and a PFAD:methanol molar ratio of 1:10.

Keywords: biodiesel, kinetics, esterification, palm fatty acid distillate, zirconium sulphated zeolite.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.4953

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