Kinetika Reaksi Polimerisasi Urea-Asetaldehid dalam Proses Enkapsulasi Urea

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.4694

Indah Purnamasari(1*), Rochmadi(2), Hary Sulistyo(3)

(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract



Untuk meningkatkan efektivitas penggunaan urea dan mengurangi pencemaran lingkungan, perlu dilakukan enkapsulasi urea sehingga pelepasan urea dalam air dapat dikontrol. Dinding kapsul terbentuk langsung di permukaan partikel urea yang disebut in situ polimerisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari kinetika reaksi polimerisasi urea dan asetaldehid dalam proses enkapsulasi urea.
Urea dan asetaldehid dengan perbandingan 1:1,2 mol/mol dimasukkan ke dalam erlenmeyer yang dilengkapi dengan termometer dan pendingin. Reaksi dijalankan di dalam erlenmeyer selama 2 jam dan contoh diambil setiap 20 menit untuk dianalisis asetaldehid sisa dengan metode sodium sulfit dan ukuran butiran diukur dengan mikroskop optik dan menggunakan software image pro. Variabel yang dipelajari adalah suhu reaksi (5-15°C), ukuran butir urea (14, 18, dan 25 mesh), dan pH (2, 3, 4). Konstanta kecepatan reaksi dan koefisien difusivitas ditentukan dengan optimasi antara model dengan data penelitian.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi suhu dan ukuran butir, semakin tinggi konversi yang dihasilkan. Semakin rendah pH (semakin asam) memberikan konversi yang semakin tinggi akan tetapi butiran hasil sedikit mengembang dan lengket. Model kinetika reaksi yang diajukan sesuai dengan data pengamatan. Reaksi adisi berlangsung lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan reaksi kondensasi. Kondisi reaksi yang cukup baik terjadi pada suhu reaksi 15°C, pH 4, ukuran butir 14 mesh dan waktu 120 menit dengan konversi sebesar 63,38%. Pada kondisi ini, produk polimer yang dihasilkan lebih keras dibandingkan dengan kondisi yang lainnya.

Kata kunci: enkapsulasi, urea-asetaldehid, polimerisasi, pelepasan terkontrol

The function of urea encapsulation is to control its release in water, thus increasing effectiveness of using urea and reducing environmental pollution. Microcapsule shell is formed directly on the surface of urea particles called in-situ polymerization. This research aimed to study the kinetics of the polymerization reaction of urea and acetaldehyde in the urea encapsulation process.
Urea and acetaldehyde in the ratio of 1:1.2 mol/mol were placed in an erlenmeyer equipped with a thermometer and cooler. The reaction was run for 2 hours in erlenmeyer and sample was taken every 20 minutes. The amount of remaining acetaldehyde was determined by sodium sulfite method and grain size was measured by optical microscope and image pro software. Variables investigated were reaction temperatures (5 - 15°C), particle sizes (14, 18, and 25 mesh), and pH (2 - 4). Reaction rate and diffusivity constants were determined through fitting the experimental data and proposed model.
The results showed that the higher temperature and grain size, the higher conversion was. Lower pH (more acid) provides higher conversion but urea particle was seen slightly swelling during the reaction, and also slightly sticky. Addition reaction was much faster than condensation reaction. The proposed reaction kinetics model fitted reasonably well to the experimental data. The process was best conducted at 15°C, 14 mesh, pH 4 and 120 minutes time of reaction which result in 63.38% conversion. Polymer product of urea-acetaldehyde obtained at this condition was slightly harder than that at other conditions.

Keywords: encapsulation, urea-acetaldehyde, polymerization, controlled release

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.4694

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