Pemanfaatan Ekstrak Protein dari Kacang-kacangan sebagai Koagulan Alami: Review

Hans Kristianto(1*), Susiana Prasetyo(2), Asaf Kleopas Sugih(3)

(1) Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Jl. Ciumbuleuit No.94, Hegarmanah, Bandung 40141
(2) Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Jl. Ciumbuleuit No.94, Hegarmanah, Bandung 40141
(3) Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknologi Industri, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Jl. Ciumbuleuit No.94, Hegarmanah, Bandung 40141
(*) Corresponding Author


Coagulation and flocculation are commonly used in water and wastewater treatment. Inorganic coagulant such as alum (Al2(SO4)3), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4), and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) are commonly used. These coagulants are known for its effectiveness and simple operation procedure. However, there are some drawbacks such as reduction in pH, potential negative health effect when the treated water is consumed, and large sludge volume. To overcome these problems, utilization of natural coagulants has been proposed. Based on its active coagulating agent, natural coagulant could be divided as polyphenolic, polysaccharides, and protein. Protein from beans and seeds is commonly used as the source of active coagulating agent, due to its effectiveness, availability, and relatively simple pretreatment is needed. Usually the protein is extracted by using 0.5-1 M NaCl solution as globulin is the major protein fraction in beans.The extracted protein could act as cationic polymer to neutralize negatively charged colloids through adsorption-charge neutralization mechanism. Extracted protein could work effectively to treat turbid and waste water with lower cost compared to alum. However, most of existing studies are still focused on small – pilot scale utilization thus further explorations are still needed.


Koagulasi dan flokulasi merupakan proses yang umum digunakan dalam pengolahan air dan limbah cair. Pada umumnya digunakan koagulan seperti alum (Al2(SO4)3), ferro sulfat (FeSO4), dan polialuminium klorida (PAC). Selain efektif, koagulasi merupakan proses yang relatif sederhana dan mudah diterapkan. Akan tetapi koagulasi dengan koagulan anorganik memiliki beberapa kekurangan seperti menurunnya pH menjadi asam saat digunakan, potensi gangguan kesehatan jika air hasil pengolahan terkonsumsi, serta volume sludge yang dihasilkan relatif tinggi. Penggunaan koagulan alami menjadi alternatif dalam pengolahan air untuk mengatasi berbagai kekurangan tersebut. Berdasarkan bahan aktif koagulannya, koagulan alami dapat dibagi menjadi polifenol, polisakarida, dan protein. Protein dari kacang-kacangan merupakan salah satu sumber koagulan alami yang umum digunakan, karena selain efektif, kacang-kacangan mudah didapat, serta membutuhkan perlakuan yang relatif sederhana, meliputi pengeringan, pengecilan ukuran, ekstraksi, serta purifikasi. Proses ekstraksi kacang-kacangan pada umumnya menggunakan larutan garam NaCl dengan konsentrasi 0,5-1 M, dikarenakan fraksi protein dominan pada protein kacang-kacangan pada umumnya berupa globulin. Protein yang terekstrak berfungsi sebagai polimer kationik yang cocok digunakan untuk mengolah koloid yang bermuatan negatif melalui mekanisme adsorpsi-netralisasi muatan. Pemanfaatan ekstrak protein dapat bekerja efektif untuk mengolah kekeruhan dan air limbah, dengan biaya yang lebih rendah dibandingkan alum. Akan tetapi pemanfaatannya masih pada skala laboratorium-pilot, sehingga diperlukan pengembangan lebih lanjut untuk isolasi ekstrak serta aplikasinya pada skala industri.


ekstraksi; koagulan alami; koagulasi; protein

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