Pengaruh Suhu Operasi terhadap Penentuan Karakteristik Pengeringan Busa Sari Buah Tomat Menggunakan Tray Dryer

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.39019

Tri Hariyadi(1*)

(1) Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Politeknik Negeri Bandung, Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Ds. Ciwaruga, Bandung 40012
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


A B S T R A C T

Food damage can be caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The causes of intrinsic factors involve water activity (aw) and moisture content, the level of maturity and the nature of the food material itself. Meanwhile, the causes of extrinsic factors were the air composition, temperature, pressure, population and microbial contamination.  Drying is one of the most widely used preservative methods, namely by evaporating most of the water contained in food by heat energy. This work studied the effect of operating conditions on the characteristics of tomato drying using tray dryer with the addition of foaming agent albumin and carrier agent dextrin which function as foam stabilizer. Tomatoes used as raw materials were ripe tomatoes, fresh red, and the same relative diameter, not physiologically and mechanically damaged. In this work, tomatoes were sliced, crushed for 10 minutes using blender, separated from the seeds and the residues with a 60-mesh sieve, and then mixed with dextrin and foaming agent albumin each as much as 5% weight. The mixture was blended for 10 minutes. The tray dryer was filled with hot air at 2.0 m/sec with temperature variation of 40, 50, 60 or 70°C. The stainless-steel dish containing tomato paste with thickness of 2 mm or 4 mm was inserted to the dryer. The tomato paste was weighted every 5 minutes. It is found, at a thickness of 2 mm, the optimum drying occurred at a temperature of 70 with critical time, tc, for 0.92 hours, critical water content of the sample, Xc, 1.40 %, and constant drying rate, Rc, 897.12 kg/m2.hour. In drying operations of 4 mm thickness, optimum drying occurs at 50 temperature with critical time, tc, for 1.92 hours, critical water content of sample, Xc, 2.56 %, and constant drying rate, Rc, 175.52 kg/m2.hour.

Keywords: cake thickness, drying rate, foaming agent, tomato, tray dryer.


A B S T R A K

Terjadinya kerusakan bahan pangan dapat disebabkan oleh faktor intrinsik dan ekstrinsik. Penyebab faktor intrinsik di antaranya aktivitas air (aw) dan kadar air, tingkat kematangan dan sifat bahan pangan itu sendiri. Sedangkan penyebab dari faktor ekstrinsik seperti komposisi udara, suhu, tekanan, populasi dan tingkat kontaminasi mikrobia. Pengeringan merupakan salah satu metode pengawetan yang paling banyak digunakan, yaitu dengan cara menguapkan sebagian besar air yang terkandung di dalam bahan pangan dengan menggunakan energi panas. Penelitian ini mempelajari karakteristik pengeringan busa sari buah tomat menggunakan tray dryer dengan penambahan foaming agent albumin dan carrier agent dextrin yang berfungsi sebagai foam stabilizer. Tomat yang digunakan sebagai bahan baku adalah tomat matang, merah segar, diameter relatif sama, tidak rusak secara fisiologis dan mekanis. Di dalam penelitian ini, tomat diiris dan dihaluskan menggunakan blender selama 10 menit. Biji dan ampasnya dipisahkan dari bubur tomat dengan ayakan berukuran 60 mesh. Kemudian bubur tomat dicampurkan dextrin dan foaming agent albumin masing-masing sebanyak 5% berat. Campuran tersebut dihaluskan dengan blender selama 10 menit. Tray dryer dialiri udara panas dengan laju 2,0 m/detik dengan variasi temperatur 40, 50, 60 atau 70 oC. Loyang stainless steel yang berisi bubur tomat dengan ketebalan 2 mm atau 4 mm dimasukkan ke dalam tray dryer. Berat bubur tomat diukur setiap 5 menit. Hasil yang diperoleh, pada ketebalan 2 mm, pengeringan optimum terjadi pada temperatur 70 ℃ dengan waktu kritis, tc, selama 0,92 jam, kadar air kritis sampel, Xc, 1,40 %, dan laju pengeringan konstan, Rc, 897,12 kg/m2.jam. Pada operasi pengeringan dengan ketebalan 4 mm, pengeringan optimum terjadi pada temperatur 50 ℃ dengan waktu kritis, tc, selama 1,92 jam, kadar air kritis sampel, Xc, 2,56 %, dan laju pengeringan konstan, Rc, 175,52 kg/m2.jam.

Kata kunci: foaming agent, ketebalan bubur, laju pengeringan, tomat, tray dryer.



Keywords


cake thickness, drying rate, foaming agent, tomato, tray dryer

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.39019

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