Kajian Dampak Lingkungan pada Sistem Produksi Listrik dari Limbah Buah Menggunakan Life Cycle Assessment


Fajar Marendra(1*), Anggun Rahmada(2), Agus Prasetya(3), Rochim Bakti Cahyono(4), Teguh Ariyanto(5)

(1) Magister Teknologi untuk Pengembangan Berkelanjutan (MTPB), Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Utara, Pogung, Mlati, Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(2) Waste Refinery Center, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl Grafika No. 2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(3) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl Grafika No. 2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(4) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl Grafika No. 2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(5) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl Grafika No. 2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author



Producing biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) is a promising process that can simultaneously provide renewable energy and dispose solid waste safely. However, this process could affect environment e.g. due to greenhouse gas emissions. By life cycle assessment (LCA), we assessed the environmental impact (EI) of an integrated fruit waste-based biogas system and its subsystems of Biogas Power Plant Gamping. Data were collected from an actual plant in Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia that adopted a wet AD process at mesophilic condition. The results showed that the global warming potential (GWP) emission of the system reached 81.95 kgCO2-eq/t, and the acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP), human toxicity potential (HTPinf) and fresh water ecotoxicity (FAETPinf) emissions were low. The EI was mainly generated by two subsystems, namely, the electricity generation and the digestate storage. A comparison analysis showed that the GWP become the main contributor of environmental loads produced by Biogas Plant Gamping, Suazhou Biogas Model, Opatokun Biogas Model, Opatokun Pyrolisis Model, dan Opatokun Integrated System Anaerobic Digestion and Pyrolisis. The GWP impact control and reduction could significantly reduce the EI of the system. It has been shown that improving the technology of the process, the electricity generation and the digestate storage will result in the reduction of EI of the biogas system.

Keywords: environmental impact; fruit waste; life cycle assessment (LCA); renewable energy


Produksi listrik dari biogas dengan anaerobic digestion (AD) merupakan proses yang menjanjikan karena dapat menghasilkan energi listrik dan penanganan limbah padat dengan aman. Namun, proses ini mempengaruhi lingkungan akibat emisi gas rumah kaca. Penilaian dampak lingkungan (environmental impact atau EI) sistem biogas berbasis limbah terpadu dan subsistemnya terhadap Biogas Power Plant Gamping (BPG) dilakukan dengan metode life cycle assesement atau LCA. Data dikumpulkan dari plant yang sebenarnya di Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia yang mengadopsi proses AD basah pada kondisi mesofilik. Potensi pemanasan global (global warming potential atau GWP) dari sistem mencapai 81,95 kgCO2-eq/t, sedangkan potensi keasaman (acidification potential atau AP), potensi eutrofikasi (eutrophication potential atau EP), potensi toksisitas manusia (human toxicity potential atau HTPinf) dan ekotoksisitas air (fresh water ecotoxicity atau FAETPinf) potensi emisinya cukup rendah. Potensi EI terutama dihasilkan oleh dua subsistem, yaitu, pembangkit listrik dan penyimpanan digestate. Analisis perbandingan menunjukkan bahwa dampak GWP menjadi kontributor utama dari beban lingkungan yang dihasilkan oleh Biogas Plant Gamping, biogas model Suazhou, biogas model Opatokun, model pirolisis Opatokun, serta model integrasi AD dan pirolisis Opatokun. Pengendalian dan pengurangan dampak GWP secara signifikan dapat mengurangi EI dari sistem. Telah terbukti bahwa peningkatkan teknologi proses, pembangkit listrik dan penyimpanan digestate akan menghasilkan pengurangan EI dari sistem biogas.

Kata kunci: dampak lingkungan; energi terbarukan; life cycle assessment (LCA); limbah buah


environmental impact; fruit waste; life cycle assessment (LCA); renewable energy

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.36425

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