Evaluasi Kehandalan Reaktor Biogas Skala Rumah Tangga di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta dengan Metode Analisis Fault Tree

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.34421

Ning Puji Lestari(1*), Siti Syamsiah(2), Sarto Sarto(3), Wiratni Budhijanto(4)

(1) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(2) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(3) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(4) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Biogas technology is one of the solutions for improving sanitation, environment, economy and energy conservation especially for smallholder farmers who are applying mixed crop and livestock farming. Indonesia Domestic Biogas Programme (BIRU) has been implemented in DIY since 2009. However, the household digesters that operate effectively only accounts for less than 50% of the total existing digesters in 2017. These problems should be identified and analyzed for more effective implementation and efficient operation of small-sized biogas system in the future. This research applied fault tree analysis (FTA) method to identify failures and evaluated their effects on the operation of small-sized biogas based on processes, physical component, and human factor point of view. Fourty-one sets of BIRU biogas were selected and sampled using stratified purposive random sampling method. Nineteen minimal cut set and three subsystems were defined, which included process failures, infrastructure failures, and human errors. The fault probabilities of the three subsystems were found to be 0.79; 0.59; and 0.96, respectively. It implied that human error gave the highest probability of errors, followed by process failure, while the physical structure of the reactor had been sufficiently well controlled. This study suggested that careful selection on prospective users should be conducted prior to installation, to ensure the motivation of the users in maintaining the reactor in good conditions. Besides, trainings and assistance system are also required to improve the skills of the user to maintain the performance of their reactor.


ABSTRAK

Teknologi biogas merupakan salah satu solusi untuk menyelesaikan masalah energi, sanitasi, lingkungan, dan ekonomi bagi masyarakat daerah pedesaan yang menerapkan sistem pertanian terpadu. Program pembangunan biogas telah banyak dilakukan di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta salah satunya melalui program Biogas Rumah (BIRU) dengan tingkat keberhasilan program yang belum memuaskan dengan angka keberhasilan di bawah 50%. Evaluasi kehandalan sistem biogas BIRU dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode fault tree analysis (FTA). Metode ini mencakup seluruh aspek yang mempengaruhi beroperasinya sebuah sistem biogas baik dari segi proses, komponen fisik (infrastruktur), maupun faktor manusia. Sebanyak 41 unit biogas yang mengalami kegagalan diteliti setelah dipilih dengan metode stratified purposive random sampling. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode FTA cocok digunakan sebagai metode evaluasi kehandalan sehingga faktor penyebab kegagalan dan nilai probabilitas setiap faktor dapat diketahui. Dengan metode FTA, diperoleh hasil bahwa penyebab kegagalan sistem biogas berupa 19 minimal cut set yang dapat dikelompokkan dalam subsistem kegagalan proses, kegagalan komponen (infrastruktur), dan human errors dengan nilai probabilitas kegagalan masing-masing 0,79; 0,59; dan 0,96. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kemungkinan terbesar kegagalan proses disebabkan oleh faktor manusia, kemudian disusul oleh faktor proses, sementara faktor komponen fisik reaktor sudah cukup baik kualitasnya. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa untuk aplikasi teknologi biogas skala rumah tangga, seleksi calon pengguna harus dilakukan dengan teliti untuk menjamin motivasi calon. Selain itu, diperlukan pelatihan dan pendampingan untuk mempersiapkan calon pengguna agar mampu memelihara keberlanjutan teknologi biogas tersebut.


Keywords


Anaerobic digestion; small-size digester; fault tree analysis

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.34421

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