Produksi Organic Preservative dan Solid Biofuel dari Hydrothermal Treatment Tongkol Jagung dengan Variasi Temperatur

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.33338

Haidar Ali(1*), Ahmad Tawfiequrrahman Yuliansyah(2)

(1) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(2) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Corn is one of staple food and influential commodity driving Indonesia’s economy. Indonesia currently produces as high as 19 million tons of corn which contains 50% of biomass in the form of cob. Waste from harvesting and consumption of corn, namely, corn cob (CC) is left as waste. This CC is actually a sustainable, easily accessible, and renewable biomass energy source as an alternative to Indonesia’s depleting fossil fuel reserves. Hydrothermal treatment is a conversion method that has some consequential advantages compared to other methods; e.g. the ability to treat high-moisture biomass like CC and the possibility to use lower temperature. This research aims to produce and characterize liquid and solid fuel subsequent to hydrothermal treatment of CC obtained from Sleman, Yogyakarta. After size reduction, fine particles were mixed with water to form slurry. Slurry was heated in an autoclave for hydrothermal treatment at initial pressure of 2.0 MPa and was held for 200 °C, 240 °C, and 270 °C in 30 minutes. The solid and liquid products were then separated. Liquid was analyzed using GC-MS and solid by using AAS. The result showed that, in comparison to raw material, solid product had higher carbon content which resulted in the increase of calorific value of the solid biofuel. The calorific value of solid product ranged from 19,59 -22,02 MJ/kg or 20,93-35,87% higher than raw materials and 4-17% higher than average coal used in Indonesia. Major component in liquid product are N, N-dimethyl formamide, furfural, and phenolic compound, with benzoic acid present as minor component. The potential of liquid products as organic preservatives are examined by testing the tenacity of wood against termite according to ASTM D3345-74 standard method. Result showed that liquid product were effective in exhibiting termiticidal activity and temperature 200 °C showed the optimum condition.

 

ABSTRAK

Jagung merupakan salah satu makanan pokok dan komoditas yang berpengaruh terhadap ekonomi Indonesia. Produksi jagung Indonesia saat ini mencapai 19 juta ton dan sebanyak 50% berupa tongkol. Limbah dari pemanenan dan konsumsi jagung adalah tongkol jagung (CC) yang cepat busuk dan banyak kelemahannya yang harus ditangani. Sebetulnya, CC merupakan solusi yang berkelanjutan, mudah diperoleh, serta sumber energi terbarukan berupa biomassa yang dapat menjadi alternatif solusi untuk berkurangnya cadangan bahan bakar fosil di Indonesia. Hydrothermal treatment adalah metode konversi yang memiliki beberapa keunggulan jika dibandingkan dengan metode lain seperti kemampuan untuk menangani kandungan air yang tinggi pada CC dan kemungkinan penggunaan temperatur yang rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkarakterisasi cairan dan padatan yang dihasilkan dari proses hydrothermal terhadap tongkol jagung yang diperoleh dari Sleman, Yogyakarta. Setelah proses reduksi ukuran, partikel halus tersebut dicampur dengan air sehingga terbentuk slurry. Slurry dipanaskan dalam autoclave untuk dijalankan proses hydrothermal dengan tekanan awal sebesar 2.0 MPa dan dijalankan pada suhu 200 °C, 240 °C, dan 270 °C dengan holding time selama 30 menit. Padatan dan cairan yang dihasilkan dipisahkan. Cairan dianalisis dengan GC-MS sedangkan padatan dengan AAS. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa dengan perbandingan bahan baku, padatan memiliki kandungan karbon yang lebih tinggi sehingga terjadi kenaikan nilai kalor. Nilai kalor padatan berkisar antara 19,59-22,02 MJ/kg atau 20,93-35,87% lebih tinggi dari bahan baku dan 4-17% dari batubara yang ada saat ini. Cairan yang dihasilkan didominasi oleh N,N-dimethyl formamide, furfural, phenolic compound serta sedikit asam berupa benzoic acid. Pengujian produk cairan sebagai pengawet organik dilakukan dengan pengujian ketahanan kayu terhadap rayap sesuai dengan standar ASTM D3345-74. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa cairan yang dihasilkan cukup efektif sebagai pembunuh rayap dan variasi temperatur 200 °C memberikan kondisi yang optimum.


Keywords


Corn cob; hydrothermal treatment; organic preservatives; solid biofuel

Full Text:

PDF


References

Agata, G.A., 2016. Naskah Seminar: Pengaruh Suhu pada Proses Upgrading Berbagai Jenis Biomassa dengan Hydrothermal Treatment. Departemen Teknik Kimia, Universitas Gadjah Mada: Yogyakarta.

ASTM, 1980. Standard Test Method Laboratory Evaluation of Wood and Other Cellulosic Materials for Resistance to Termites. American Society for Testing and Material ASTM D3345-74, Philadelphia, PA.

ASTM, 2013. Standard Practice for Proximate Analysis, American Society for Testing and Material ASTM D3172-12, West Conshohocken, PA.

Child, M., 2014, “Industrial-Scale Hydrothermal Carbonization of Waste Sludge Materials for Fuel Produsction”, Lappeeranta University of Technology, Finlandia.

Food And  Agriculture  Organization  of  The United     Nations     (FAO). 2010 .Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010 Country Report, Forest  Resources  Divison.FAO, Roma, Italia.

Grover, P.D. & Mishra, S.K., 1996. Regional Wood Energy Development Programme In Asia Gcp / Ras / 154 / Net Biomass Briquetting : Technology And Practices. (46).

International Energy Agency, 2016. World Energy Outlook. OCED, Paris.

Kalderis, D. dkk, 2014. Characterization of hydrochars produced by hydrothermal carbonization of rice husk. Solid Earth, 5(1), pp.477–483.

Obernberger, I., Brunner, T. and Bärnthaler, G., 2006. Chemical properties of solid biofuels – significance and impact. Biomass Bioenergy, 30(11), pp.973–982.

Richana, N.U.R., 2010. Saccharification Of Corncob Using Cellulolytic Bacteria For Bioethanol Production. , 17(2), pp.105–114.

Sadaka, S., 2010. Gasification, Producer Gas, and Syngas. Agricultural and Natural Resources, University of Ankansas, USA.

Yatagai M. et.al, 2004. Termiticidal activity of wood vinegar, its components and their homologues. J Wood Sci2002;48: 338-342.

Yuliansyah, A.T. et al., 2010. Production of Solid Biofuel from Agricultural Wastes of the Palm Oil Industry by Hydrothermal Treatment. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 1(4), pp.395–405.

Yuniningsih, S., 2014. Utilization of Various Types of Agricultural Waste Became Liquid Smoke using Pyrolysis Process., 28, pp.60–66.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.33338

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 203 | views : 3166

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal Rekayasa Proses

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Rekayasa Proses  (print ISSN 1978-287X; online ISSN 2549-1490) is published by Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada. View website statistics.