Pengaruh Waktu dan Konsentrasi NaOH pada Proses Delignifikasi Wheat Bran

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.33337

Devi Sepmita Wulansari(1*), Supranto Supranto(2)

(1) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(2) Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


There are approximately 14.5% of whole wheat which belongs to bran and contains cellulose (33.7-40%), hemicellulose (21-26%), lignin (11–22.9%) and the other components. Cellulose is polysaccharide which is composed of 2000-3000 unit of glucose. Cellulose purification from the wheat bran can be done by the hydrolysis, followed by the processes of delignification and bleaching. The experiments were perfomed first by hydrolizing 20 grams of wheat bran using 250 mL of 2.5 N HCl solution for 2 hours at temperature of 80oC. The next process was delignification using 400 mL of NaOH solution and was conducted by varying the time in 1 hour, 1,5 hours, 2 hours, and 2.5 hours and the concentration of NaOH solution in 0.5 N; 1 N; 1.5 N; 2 N. For the last process, bleaching was performed by using 300 mL of H2O2 10% solution in temperature of 80 oC for 1 hour. The sample was then dried in order to remove water content by getting the sample in the oven for 1 hour at temperature of 40 oC. The goals of the experiments were to find the correlation between the variation of time and NaOH concentration to the cellulose quality in terms of the color and the structure of cellulose sample and and to the quantitative measure which was the yield of the sample. The best product was obtained at the optimum operation of 2.5 hours delignification and 1.55 N of NaOH concentration.

Keywords: wheat bran, cellulose, hydrolysis, delignification, bleaching

 

ABSTRAK

Wheat bran merupakan kulit luar gandum dengan jumlah sekitar 14,5% dari total keseluruhan gandum selain mengandung selulosa (33,7-40%), hemiselulosa (21-26%), lignin (11–22,9%) dan komponen-komponen lainnya. Selulosa merupakan polisakarida yang terdiri dari 2000-3000 unit glukosa. Pengambilan selulosa dari wheat bran dapat dilakukan dengan beberapa tahapan yakni dimulai dengan proses hidrolisis dilanjutkan dengan proses delignifikasi dan yang terakhir adalah proses bleaching. Percobaan dilakukan dengan menghidrolisis wheat bran sebanyak 20 gram menggunakan larutan HCl 2,5 N sebanyak 250 mL dalam waktu 2 jam pada suhu 80oC. Dilanjutkan dengan proses delignifikasi wheat bran pada suhu 80oC dengan menggunakan larutan NaOH sebanyak 400 mL. Proses delignifikasi dilakukan dengan membuat variasi waktu percobaan dan konsentrasi NaOH. Waktu percobaan divariasikan 1 jam; 1,5 jam; 2 jam; 2,5 jam sedangkan konsentrasi NaOH divariasikan 0,5 N; 1 N, 1,5 N; 2 N. Tahapan terakhir adalah bleaching larutan H2O2 10% sebanyak 300 mL, dan proses ini dilakukan selama 1 jam pada suhu 80 oC. Hasil akhir dihilangkan kadar airnya dengan mengoven sampel selama 1 jam dalam oven bersuhu 40 oC. Hasil yang akan dianalisis dari percobaan ini adalah kualitas dengan parameter struktur dan warna sampel selulosa serta kuantitas selulosa dengan parameter yield. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh kondisi optimum untuk proses delignifikasi untuk nilai total tertinggi adalah 2,5 jam dan konsentrasi sebesar 1,55 N.

Kata kunci: wheat bran, selulosa, hidrolisis, delignifikasi, bleaching


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.33337

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