Kinetika Reaksi Esterifikasi Gliserol dengan Asam Asetat Menggunakan Katalisator Indion 225 Na

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.1897

Nuryoto(1*), Hary Sulistyo(2), Suprihastuti, Sri Rahayu(3), Sutijan(4)

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(4) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract



Biodisel merupakan bahan bakar alternatif yang ramah lingkungan. Dengan semakin meningkatnya proses pembuatan biodiesel, maka akan diikuti dengan meningkatnya produk samping berupa gliserol. Untuk itu, usaha pengolahan gliserol menjadi produk lain harus dilakukan, agar nilai ekonomi gliserol makin meningkat. Salah satunya adalah dengan mengolahnya menjadi triacetin. Triacetin merupakan hasil reaksi antara gliserol dan asam asetat. Penggunaan katalisator padat berupa resin penukar ion Indion 225 Na dimaksudkan untuk mempermudah pemisahan hasil reaksi. Pembuatan triacetin pada penelitian ini dilakukan dalam reaktor batch, dengan kecepatan pengadukan 1000 rpm, suhu reaksi 333 K – 373 K, menggunakan katalisator padat ukuran diameter 0,085 cm, perbandingan pereaksi 7 gmol asam asetat/gmol gliserol, dan konsentrasi katalisator 3% berat asam asetat. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan setiap 15 menit sampai waktu reaksi 90 menit untuk dianalisis kadar asam bebasnya. Disamping itu, asam total, asam bebas, dan gliserol total pada saat awal reaksi ditentukan secara volumetri. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan konversi tertinggi diperoleh sebesar 41,7% pada suhu 373 K, dan laju reaksi merupakan langkah yang mengontrol. Pengaruh suhu terhadap konstanta kecepatan reaksi pada kisaran 333 K – 373 K dapat dinyatakan dengan persamaan berikut:
kr = 3,344 x 100000 exp (-7.955,56/T ) (1/detik)

Kata kunci: esterifikasi, asam asetat, gliserol, Indion 225 Na, triacetin, biodisel

Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative fuel. The increase of biodiesel production is followed by the increase of the glycerol as by product. Therefore, conversion of glycerol into other products to increase its economic value should be done such as converting it to triacetin. Triacetin is a product from a reaction between glycerol and acetic acid. The use of solid catalysts such as ion exchange resin 225 Indion Na is an alternative method to ease product separation. Preparation of triacetin was conducted in a batch reactor with a stirring speed of 1000 rpm, at temperature of 333 K – 373 K, catalyst diameter of 0.085 cm, the reactant ratio of 7 gmol acetic acid / gmol glycerol, and catalyst concentration of 3% to weight of acetic acid. The sample was taken every 15 minutes in a reaction time of 90 minutes then was analized for free acid concentration. Total acid, free acid, and total glycerol were also determined by volumetric method at the early stage of reaction. The results showed that the highest conversion as high as 41.7% was achieved at 373 K. It was found that the reaction rate was the controlling step. The effect of temperature to rate of reaction constants in the temperature range of 333 K – 373 K can be expressed as follows:
kr = 3.344 x 100000 exp (-7,955.56/T ) (1/s)

Keywords: esterification, acetic acid, glycerol, Indion 225 Na, triacetin, biodiesel

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.1897

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