Optimasi Proses Nitrasi pada Pembuatan Nitro Selulosa dari Serat Limbah Industri Sagu

https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.1887

Purnawan Purnawan(1*)

(1) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Proses pembuatan selulosa nitrat dari serat sagu dilakukan dengan dua tahapan proses yaitu proses delignifikasi dan proses nitrasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari proses nitrasi selulosa menjadi nitro selulosa. Sebelum dinitrasi, selulosa serat sagu dibersihkan dari kandungan ligninnya dengan proses soda nitrat memakai asam nitrat dan natrium hidroksida. Proses nitrasi menggunakan asam campuran yang terdiri dari asam nitrat dan asam sulfat sebagai katalisator. Proses dilakukan dalam labu leher tiga yang dilengkapi pengaduk dan pengatur suhu. Pada penelitian ini dipelajari pengaruh waktu reaksi, perbandingan selulosa dengan asam campuran dan perbandingan asam sulfat dengan asam nitrat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses nitrasi akan memberikan hasil terbaik pada waktu reaksi 1,5 jam, perbandingan selulosa – asam campuran 1:20 serta perbandingan asam sulfat – asam nitrat 1:5. Pada kondisi ini diperoleh yield sebanyak 151,22% dengan kandungan nitrogen sebanyak 13,39% yang mendekati kadar nitrogen maksimum teoritis sebesar 14,14%. Kata kunci: delignifikasi, nitrasi, nitroselulosa, kadar nitrogen Nitrocellulose production from sago fibers was conducted in two steps, i.e. delignification and nitration processes. This work studied the nitration process of sago fiber cellulose. Before nitration, the lignin was removed using the nitrate soda process utilizing nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. The nitration process used an acid solution consisting of nitric acid and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The process was carried out in a three neck flask equipped with stirrer and temperature control. The effects of reaction time, nitric acid concentration, and sulfuric to nitric acid ratio were investigated. The results showed that the best operating conditions obtained for the reaction time, cellulose to mixed acid ratio and sulfuric to nitric acid ratio were 1.5 hours, 1:20 and 1:4 respectively in which the product yield and nitrogen content were found to be 151.22% and 13.39%. This nitrogen content was close to the theoretical maximum nitrogen content of 14.14%. Keywords: delignification, nitration, nitrocellulose, nitrogen content.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jrekpros.1887

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