Perbandingan Luaran Maternal dan Perinatal Kehamilan Terkonfirmasi Covid-19 antara Gelombang Pertama dan Kedua Pandemi

https://doi.org/10.22146/jkr.81781

Raissa Alifia Irsan(1*), Nur Farhanah(2), Yuli Trisetiyono(3), Ratnasari Dwi Cahyanti(4)

(1) Mahasiswa Program Studi Kedokteran, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro
(2) Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro
(3) Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro
(4) Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background : New cases of COVID-19 continued to emerge due to the new variants. Pregnant women are more susceptible to severe infections.

Objective : To compare the effect of COVID-19 infection on maternal and perinatal outcomes in the first and second waves.

Method : An analytical observational study with a cross-sectional design was used. Samples were selected by consecutive sampling from the medical record data of RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang, Indonesia, with 47 cases during the first wave (1 August 2020 to 14 May 2021) and 47 cases during the second wave (16 May to 30 September 2021). Data were analysed using univariate, chi-square, fisher’s exact, and logistic regression tests with a significant value of p <0,05.

Results and Discussion : Pneumonia, ICU admission, and oxygen consumptions were higher in the second than the first wave as 87.23% VS 70.21%; p = 0.044, 36.17% VS 14.89%; p = 0.018, 65.96% VS 12.77%; p < 0.0001 respectively. The severe COVID-19 infection and maternal mortality increased in the second wave (51,06% VS 14,89%; p = 0.009; 29,79% VS 8,51%; p = <0.001). There were no differences in perinatal outcomes between the first and second waves such as fetal distress, fetal growth retardation, low birth weight, nICU admission, and mortality (0.00% VS 8.51%; p = 0.117, 0.00% VS 4.26%; p = 0.495, 12.77% VS 25.53%; p = 0.116, 12.77% VS 21.28%; p = 0.272, 4.26% VS 8.51%; p = 0.677). The incidence of COVID-19 infection in neonates remained low in both waves at 17.02% VS 12.77%; p = 0.562.

Conclusion : Even though a high number of severe diseases to maternal deaths were found during the second wave, neonatal COVID-19 infections remained low.

 


Keywords


COVID-19, Delta variant, maternal outcome, perinatal outcome, wave.

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. Brief Report: A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020 Feb 20;382(8):727.
  2. WHO. Indonesia: WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard with Vaccination Data. WHO. 2022.
  3. Joyosemito IS, Nasir NM. Gelombang Kedua Pandemi Menuju Endemi Covid-19: Analisis Kebijakan Vaksinasi dan Pembatasan Kegiatan Masyarakat di Indonesia. J Sains Teknol dalam Pemberdaya Masy. 2021;2(1):55–66.
  4. Ellington S, Strid P, Tong VT, Woodworth K, Galang RR, Zambrano LD, et al. Characteristics of Women of Reproductive Age with Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Pregnancy Status-United States, January 22-June 7, 2020. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2020;75(11):664–6.
  5. Chmielewska B, Barratt I, Townsend R, Kalafat E, Van Der Meulen J, Gurol-Urganci I, et al. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2021;759–72.
  6. Singh V, Choudhary A, Datta MR, Ray A. Maternal and Neonatal Outcome of Pregnant Women With SARS-CoV-2 Infection During the First and Second Wave of COVID-19 in a Tertiary Care Institute in Eastern India. Cureus. 2022 Feb 18;14(2).
  7. Kadiwar S, Smith JJ, Ledot S, Johnson M, Bianchi P, Singh N, et al. Were pregnant women more affected by COVID-19 in the second wave of the pandemic? Lancet. 2021;397(10284):1539–40.
  8. Cuñarro-López Y, Pintado-Recarte P, Hernández-Martín C, Paya-Martínez P, López-Pérez R, Cueto-Hernández I, et al. Comparing Infection Profiles of Expectant Mothers with COVID-19 and Impacts on Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes between the First Two Waves of the Pandemic. J Pers Med. 2021 Jul 1;11(7).
  9. Vousden N, Ramakrishnan R, Bunch K, Morris E, Simpson NAB, Gale C, et al. Severity of maternal infection and perinatal outcomes during periods of SARS-CoV-2 wildtype, alpha, and delta variant dominance in the UK: prospective cohort study. BMJ Med. 2022 Mar 1;1(1):e000053.
  10. Carbonell R, Urgelés S, Rodríguez A, Bodí M, Martín-Loeches I, Solé-Violán J, et al. Mortality comparison between the first and second/third waves among 3,795 critical COVID-19 patients with pneumonia admitted to the ICU: A multicentre retrospective cohort study. Lancet Reg Heal Eur. 2021 Dec 1;11.
  11. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet (London, England). 2020 Feb 15;395(10223):507–13.
  12. Mahajan NN, Pophalkar M, Patil S, Yewale B, Chaaithanya IK, Mahale SD, et al. Pregnancy Outcomes and Maternal Complications During the Second Wave of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India. Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Oct 1;138(4):660–2.
  13. Chaudhary D, Chauhan M, Gupta D, Jat S. A comparative review of maternal and neonatal outcome among pregnant women with COVID-19 in first and second wave in a tertiary care centre of South Rajasthan. Int J Reprod Contraception, Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Nov 25;10(12):4471.
  14. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 variants in India and situation in the EU/EEA. 2021.
  15. Ong SWX, Chiew CJ, Ang LW, Mak TM, Cui L, Toh MPHS, et al. Clinical and Virological Features of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Variants of Concern: A Retrospective Cohort Study Comparing B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), and B.1.617.2 (Delta). Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Aug 24;75(1):e1128–36.
  16. Volz E, Hill V, McCrone JT, Price A, Jorgensen D, O’Toole Á, et al. Evaluating the Effects of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Mutation D614G on Transmissibility and Pathogenicity. Cell. 2021 Nov 18;184(1):64-75.e11.
  17. Tian D, Sun Y, Zhou J, Ye Q. The Global Epidemic of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant, Key Spike Mutations and Immune Escape. Front Immunol. 2021 Nov 30;12.
  18. Liu Z, VanBlargan LA, Bloyet LM, Rothlauf PW, Chen RE, Stumpf S, et al. Landscape analysis of escape variants identifies SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations that attenuate monoclonal and serum antibody neutralization. bioRxiv. 2020 Nov 14.
  19. Li Q, Wu J, Nie J, Zhang L, Hao H, Liu S, et al. The Impact of Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 Spike on Viral Infectivity and Antigenicity. Cell. 2020 Jul 17;182(5):1284-1294.e9.
  20. Di Giacomo S, Mercatelli D, Rakhimov A, Giorgi FM. Preliminary report on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) Spike mutation T478K. J Med Virol. 2021 Sep 1;93(9):5638–43.
  21. Shang J, Wan Y, Luo C, Ye G, Geng Q, Auerbach A, et al. Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 May 26;117(21):11727–34.
  22. Pascarella S, Ciccozzi M, Zella D, Bianchi M, Benedetti F, Benvenuto D, et al. SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617 Indian variants: Are electrostatic potential changes responsible for a higher transmission rate? J Med Virol. 2021 Dec 1;93(12):6551–6.
  23. Yang Z, Liu Y. Vertical Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: A Systematic Review. Am J Perinatol. 2020 Aug 1;37(10):1055–60.
  24. Salem D, Katranji F, Bakdash T. COVID-19 infection in pregnant women: Review of maternal and fetal outcomes. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2021 Mar 1;152(3):291–8.
  25. Chen H, Guo J, Wang C, Luo F, Yu X, Zhang W, et al. Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet (London, England). 2020 Mar 7;395(10226):809–15.
  26. Fan C, Lei D, Fang C, Li C, Wang M, Liu Y, et al. Perinatal Transmission of 2019 Coronavirus Disease-Associated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: Should We Worry? Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Mar 1;72(5):862–4.
  27. Panahi L, Amiri M, Pouy S. Risks of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Pregnancy; a Narrative Review. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020 Mar;8(1):e34.
  28. Dashraath P, Wong JLJ, Lim MXK, Lim LM, Li S, Biswas A, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Mar 23;222(6):521–31.
  29. Karimi-Zarchi M, Neamatzadeh H, Dastgheib SA, Abbasi H, Mirjalili SR, Behforouz A, et al. Vertical Transmission of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) from Infected Pregnant Mothers to Neonates: A Review. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2020 Jun;39(3):246–50.
  30. Shuo C, Bo H, Danju L, Xiang L, Fan Y, Yin Z, et al. [Pregnancy with new coronavirus infection: clinical characteristics and placental pathological analysis of three cases]. Chinese J Pathol. 2020 May 1;49(5):418–23.
  31. Zheng QL, Duan T, Jin LP. Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2 and AXL in the human maternal–fetal interface. Reprod Dev Med. 2020 Mar 25;4(1):10
  32. Yang Z, Wang M, Zhu Z, Liu Y. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: a systematic review. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2022 Apr 20;35(8):1619–22



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkr.81781

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 507 | views : 276

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Kesehatan Reproduksi Indexed by:

 

 



SEKRETARIAT JURNAL KESEHATAN REPRODUKSI
Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, FK-KMK, UGM/RS Dr. Sardjito
Jl. Kesehatan No. 1, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
Tlp: (0274) 511329 / Faks: (0274) 544003
Email: jurnal.kesehatanreproduksi@ugm.ac.id
Cp: Dwi Astuti +6281802698043