Infeksi Covid-19 pada Ibu Hamil dan Kejadian Anomali Kongenital: Scoping Review

Patricia Alika Kurniawan(1*), Eugenia Maria Alodia Hartono(2), Shinta Prawitasari(3)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author



Background: Covid-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus (SARS-CoV 2). Pregnant women have higher risk to get infection, including covid-19. Vertical transmission from mother to fetal does not seem to appear in covid-19, but further studies are still needed. Several cases have reported maternal vascular malperfusion and chronic histiocytic intervillositis with trophoblast necrosis in the placenta of mothers infected by covid-19, which can directly affect fetal development in the uterus. To date, little is known about the effect of SARS-CoV 2 infection in pregnancy. However, SARS-CoV 2 infection in the first trimester of pregnancy may have the potential to cause complication such as miscarriage and congenital anomaly.

Objective: This study was conducted to describe if there was any influence of covid-19 infection in pregnancy may lead up to the incidence of fetal congenital anomalies.

Method: This was a scoping review. Journals that suited inclusion and exclusion criteria were collected and analyzed. The inclusion criteria was journal discussing covid-19 in pregnancy correlated with fetal congenital anomaly. Exclusion criterias were journals not written in English or not full text. The journal was searched on  PubMed. Data was presented in the table.

Results and Discussion: A scoping review was carried out on 9 journals that matched the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 6 journals did not show any association of congenital anomalies in infants born to mothers infected with covid-19. Three of the six journals did not find any congenital anomalies, while the other three journals consecutively stated that there was no relationship between maternal covid-19 infection and hearing loss, congenital heart disease, and neurodevelopmental delay (hearing loss and retinopathy of prematurity) in infants. One journal concluded that there was a significant increase in fine motor transient abnormalities. One journal concluded that eye abnormalities may be caused by fetomaternal transmission of covid-19 or an indirect effect of maternal covid-19 infection when optic tract development occurred. One journal was unable to conclude whether abnormal brain MRI results in 3 infants had any correlation with mother’s covid-19 infection during pregnancy. There were two journals that found placental insufficiency in subjects infected with covid-19.

Conclusion: The correlation between fetal congenital anomaly and maternal covid-19 infection has not been well established. Therefore, further investigation is still needed.


Keywords: Congenital Anomaly; Covid-19; Pregnancy


Anomali Kongenital; Covid-19; Kehamilan

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