Pengaruh Preeklamsia dan Hipertensi Kronis terhadap Kejadian Bayi Kecil Masa Kehamilan (KMK)

Irmitasari Irmitasari(1*), Detty Siti Nurdiati(2), Diah Rumekti Hadiati(3)

(1) Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Keperawatan
(2) Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Keperawatan
(3) Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Keperawatan
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: Preeclampsia and chronic hypertension are associated with a large number of cases of small infants during pregnancy (SIP) and perinatal deaths. There are conflicting inconsistencies between research on the effect of preeclampsia and chronic hypertension on KMK. The data showed that preeclampsia had a very significant effect on the occurrence of KMK, but in reality not all infants of preeclampsia mothers gave birth to babies with KMK. This raises the assumption that there are other factors that inhibit the influence of preeclampsia and chronic hypertension on birth weight.

Objective: to determine the effect of preeclampsia and chronic hypertension on KMK in Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta.

Method: Retrospective cohort. Data of maternity patients with preeclampsia, maternity patients with chronic hypertension, and weight data of babies born at RSUP Dr. Sardjito were recorded. Also noted parity, maternal age, employment and education. Data were taken from medical records and classified into normotension, preeclampsia, and chronic hypertension using consecutive sampling methods.

Result and Discussion: There were 81 samples for each normotension group, preeclampsia, and chronic hypertension. Preeclampsia is significantly at risk of experiencing SIP 7,43 times (95% IK 3,13-17,66). Chronic hypertension is significantly at risk of experiencing 5,15 times SIP% IK 2,15-12,36). Multigravida subjects were at risk of experiencing SIP 1,92 times (IK 95% 1,04-3,55) There was no significant difference in the proportion of SIP in subjects based on age, occupation, and education.

Conclusion: Preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, and multigravida parity significantly provide a higher risk of the incidence of SIP. If the three factors work together, they will reinforce the effect on increasing the risk of SIP.

Keywords: Small gestational period; preeclampsia; chronic hypertension


Small gestational period; preeclampsia; chronic hypertension

Full Text:



  1. Angsar MD. 2010. Hipertensi dalam Kehamilan. Dalam: Saifuddin AB, editor.  Ilmu  Kebidanan.  Edisi  IV.  Jakarta:  PT Bina  Pustaka  Sarwono  Prawirohardjo; h. 530-559.
  2. Xiong X, Demianczuk N, Saunders D, Wang F, Fraser W.D. 2002. Impact of   Preeclampsia  and  Gestational  Hypertension  on  Birth  Weight  by   Gestational Age. Am J Epidemiol; 155: 203–209
  3. Cunningham  FG,  Gant  NF,  Leveno  KJ,  Gillstarp  LC,  Hauth  JC. 2010. Gangguan Hipertensi dalam Kehamilan. Dalam Obstetri Williams. Edisi XXI. Jakarta: EGC; h. 624-673.
  4. Xiong X et. al. 1998. Impact of pregnancy-induced hypertension on fetal growth, Perinatal Research Centre,  a the Department of Public Health  Science,the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and the Departments of Paediatrics and Physiology,University of Alberta - Canada.  Presented at the Spotlight Section, No. 43, of the Thirty-first Annual  Meeting of the Society of Epidemiologic Research, Chicago, Illinois, June  24-26.
  5. Aleem A dkk. 2011. Impact of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension on Birth Weight of New Born at Term, Rawalpindi, Department of Pediatric, Rawalpindi Military Hospital; Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College; 15(2):113-115.
  6. Mumbare S,  Girish Maindarkar,  Rajesh Darade,  Surekha yenge, Madhav Kumar Tolani And Kiran Patole: 2012. Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Term Low Birth Weight Neonates: A Matched-Pair Case Control Study; Latur; Departments of Community Medicine, Pediatrics, and Obstetrics & Gynecology, NDMVPS Medical College, Nashik;Civil Hospital, Nashik Maharashtra- India,.  Journal of Pediatric:   Volume 49 January 16.
  7. Damaru Prasad Paneru, Vijaya A Naik, B R Nilgar, Mahesh D  Mallapur. 2014. Obstetric risk factors for low birth weight Amongst full term babies born at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Belgaum District, South           India,National Journal of Community Medicine;Volume 5. Issue 1Jan – Mar 2014 :ISSN 0976 332;e:SSN 2229 6816.
  8. Departemen  Kesehatan  RI. 2011. Riset  Kesehatan  Dasar  2010.  Jakarta.   Kepala Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Departemen   Kesehatan RI.  
  9. Winn H, Hobbins J. 2000. Clinical Maternal Fetal Medicine. New York: Parthenon Publishing Group: 707-718.
  10. Rajab W. 2006. Pengaruh Preeklampsia/Eklampsia pada Ibu Hamil terhadap Terjadinya BBLR di RSUPN Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo. Tesis. Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia.
  11. Chamy VM, Lepe J, Catalan A, Retamal D, Escobar JA, Madrid EM. 2006. Oxidative stress is closely related to clinical severity of  pre-eclampsia.Biol Res;39:229 –236.
  12. Sharma M.K., Kumar D, Huria A, Gupta P. 2009. The Internet Journal of Health, h 9


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1006 | views : 3001


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Kesehatan Reproduksi Indexed by:


Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, FK-KMK, UGM/RS Dr. Sardjito
Jl. Kesehatan No. 1, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
Tlp: (0274) 511329 / Faks: (0274) 544003
Cp: Dwi Astuti +6281802698043