Getting Out of the Trap of War on Drugs

Erwinton Simatupang(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


The aim of this paper is to reveal several factors why war on drugs is still adopted by The Indonesian government and to offer an alternative approach as a problem solver. Therefore, the paper utilizes a literature review by collecting data from books, journals, news articles, and research reports. The results indicate that some factors consist of: (a) The New Order as previous generation failed to notice the dangers of drugs; (b) Since the New Order, the government is not committed to reveal the involvement of political actors in the drug problem; (c), SBY did not show a firm attitude to the drug problem; (d), Jokowi is the product of the previous generation, the New Order, who may believe that drug issues can be solved by legal approach; (e) Political affiliation between Jokowi and Megawati at PDI-P; (f) The war on drugs is a populist policy and can not be separated from political interests. As a result, war on drugs in Indonesia is war on young generation because the greatest victim of the policy is the lives of the young generation. To get out of this trap, the government should prevent individuals and groups from social exclusion because social dimensions frequently precede the drug issues and become a stumbling block for those who are addicted to get out of the drug problem.



drugs; social exclusio; war on drugs

Full Text:



Aji, Yogi Bayu. 2015, 7 Maret. Peneliti: Putusan Vonis Mati di Era SBY, Jokowi Hanya Jalankan Eksekusi. Metrotvnews. Diakses 23 Oktober 2010.

Ali, M. Amrin P dan Duse, Imran. 2007, Narkoba Ancaman Generasi Muda, Pustaka Timur. Kaltim

A., S. dan Lapeyre, Frederic. 2004. Poverty and Exclusion in a Global World 2nd revised and enlarged edition. Palgrave Macmillan. Basingstoke.

Arrow, K., Castro, L. F. C., Clegg, N., Collier, P., Cox, M., Uribe, A. G., … Williamson, O. 2014. Ending the Drug Wars: Report of the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy. LSE Ideas.

Atkinson, A.B. 1998. Social Exclusion, Poverty and Unemployment. Exclusion, Employment and Opportunity. Editor A.B. Atkinson dan J. Hills. CASE paper 4, Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics. 1-24.

Bagley, B. M. 1988. US Foreign Policy and the War on Drugs: Analysis of a Policy Failure. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs. 30 (2/3): 189–212.

Betapa Istimewanya Corby. 2014, 12 Februari. Kompas. 6.

Bhalla, A., S. dan Lapeyre, Frederic. 2004. Poverty and Exclusion in a Global World 2nd revised and enlarged edition. Palgrave Macmillan. Basingstoke.

Bourchier, David. 1990. Crime, Law and State Authority in Indonesia. State and Civil Society in Indonesia. Editor Arief Budiman. Victoria. Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University. 177-212.

Buchanan, Julian. 2004. Missing Links: Problem Drug Use and Social Exclusion. Probation Journal Special Edition on Problem Drug Use. 51 (4): 387-397.

Buchanan, Julian. 2006. Understanding Problematic Drug Use: A Medical Matter or a Social Issue?. Diakses pada 22 Oktober 2016.

Buchanan, Julian dan Young, Lee. 1995. Drugs Relapse Prevention: Giving Users a Voice, A Report for Bootle Maritime City Challenge. The University of Liverpool. Liverpool.

Chabat, Jorge. 2002. Mexico’s War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 582 (1). 134–148.

Chepesiuk, Ron. 1999. The War on Drugs: An International Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. Santa Barbara.

Chin, Ko-lin. 2007. Into the Thick of It: Methodological Issues in Studying the Drug Trade in the Golden Triangle. Asian Journal of Criminology. 2 (2): 85–109.

Chomsky, Noam. 2015. How the World Works. Terj. Tia Setiadi. Penerbit Bentang. Yogyakarta. (Karya asli dipublikasi pada 2011).

Cooper, H. LF. 2015. War on Drugs Policing and Police Brutality. Subst Use Misuse. 50 (8–9): 1188–1194.

Davis, S. L. M., Triwahyuono, A., dan Alexander, R. 2009. Survey of Abuses Against Injecting Drug Users in Indonesia. Harm Reduction Journal. 6 (28): 1–6.

Fisher, Gary L. 2006. Rethinking Our War on Drugs: Candid Talk about Controversial Issues, Praeger Publishers. Amerika Serikat.

Global Commission on Drug Policy. 2011. War on Drugs: Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy. Global Commission on Drugs.

Gordon, David. 2007. History and Development of Social Exclusion and Policy. Multidisciplinary Handbook of Social Exclusion Research. Editor D. Abrams, J. Christian dan D. Gordon. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Chichester. 192-210.

Harsono, Wiji. 2014. Jimpitan, Modal Sosial yang Menjadi Solusi Permasalahan Masyarakat. Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik. 18 (2): 131-145.

Haseman, John B. 2011. National Security. Indonesia: A Country Study. Editor William H. Frederick dan Robert L. Worden. U.S. Government Printing Office. Amerika Serikat. 312-366.

Honna, Jun. 2011. Orchestrating Transnational Crime Security Sector Politics as a Trojan Horse for Anti-Reformists. The State and Illegality in Indonesia. Editor Edward Aspinall dan Gerry van Klinken. KITLV Press. Leiden. 261-279.

Hughes, C. E., dan Stevens, A. 2010. What Can We Learn From The Portuguese Decriminalization of Illicit Drugs ?. British Journal of Criminology. 50 (6): 999–1022.

Idris, Aradila Caesar Ifmaini. 2016, 24 Agustus. Remisi Untuk Koruptor. Kompas. 7.

Jensen, Eric L., Jurg Gerber, dan Clayton Mosher. 2004. Social Consequences of the War on Drugs: The Legacy of Failed Policy. Criminal Justice Policy Review. 15 (1): 100-121.

Jones, Hal. 1998. The Limits of Pressure: US Policy Failures in the International War on Drugs. Harvard International Review. 20 (2): 38–41.

Khenti, Akwatu. 2014. The Canadian War on Drugs: Structural Violence and Unequal Treatment of Black Canadians. International Journal of Drug Policy. 25 (2): 190–195.

Kiswanto, Eddy. 2005. Negara Kesejahteraan (Welfare State): Mengembalikan Peran Negara Dalam Pembangunan Kesejahteraan Sosial di Indonesia. Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik. 9 (2): 91-108.

Koller, Veronica dan Davidson, Paul. 2008. Social Exclusion as Conceptual and Grammatical Metaphor: A Cross-Genre Study of British Policy Making. Discourse and Society. 19 (3): 307-331.

Kontras. 2015. Rilisan Media: Akademisi dan Aktivis Indonesia Menghimbau Respon Berbasis Bukti dengan Pendekatan Kesehatan Masyarakat Untuk Penggunaan Narkotika di Indonesia. Diakses pada 1 Agustus 2016.

Kusumasari, Bevaola. 2014. Social Media dan Eksklusi Remaja dalam Perumusan Kebijakan Publik. Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik. 18 (2): 119-129.

Lai, Gloria, Fransiska Amin, dan Ruth Birgin. 2013. Drug Policy in Indonesia. International Drug Policy Consortium (IDPC). Briefing Paper. January.

Luty, Jason. 2016. The Beginning of The End of Prohibition: The Politics of Drug Addiction. BJPscyh Advances. 22 (4): 242–250.

March, J. C., Oviedo-Joekes, E., dan Romero, M. 2005. Injection and Non-Injection Drug Use Related to Social Exclusion Indicators in Two Andalusian Cities. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. 12 (6): 437–447.

Ma'roef, Ridha. 1986. Narkotika, Bahaya, dan Penanggulangannya. Karisma. Jakarta.

Mckeganey, N., Neale, J., Parkin, S., dan Mills, C. 2004. Communities and Drugs: Beyond The Rhetoric of Community Action. Probation Journal. 51 (4): 343–361.

Measham, Fiona dan Nigel South. 2012. Drugs, Alcohol, and Crime. The Oxford Handbook of Criminology Fifth Edition. Editor Mike Maguire, Rod Morgan dan Robert Reiner. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 286-716.

Mejia, Daniel dan Restrepo, Pascual. 2014. Why is Strict Prohibition Collapsing? A Perspective from Producer and Transit Countries. Ending the Drug Wars: Report of the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy. Editor John Collins. LSE Ideas. 26-32.

Melrose, Margaret. 2006. Young People and Drugs. Drugs, Policy and Politics. Editor R. Hughes, R. Lart, dan P. Higate. Open University Press. Maidenhead. 31-44.

Mercille, Julien. 2014. The Media-Entertainment Industry and the “ War on Drugs ” in Mexico. Latin American Perspectives. 41 (195): 110–129.

Millar, Jane. 2007. Social Exclusion and Social Policy Research: Defining Exclusion. Multidisciplinary Handbook of Social Exclusion Research. Editor D. Abrams, J. Christian dan D. Gordon. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Chichester. 1-15.

Morales, W. Q. 1989. The War on Drugs: A New US National Security Doctrine?. Third World Quarterly. 11 (3): 147–169.

Narkotika atau Kacang Goreng. 2016, 8-14 Agustus. Majalah Tempo. 18.

Nasir, S., Rosenthal, D., dan Moore, T. 2014. Drug Use Among Young Men in a Slum Area in Makassar, Indonesia. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology. 3 (2014): 336–347.

Neale, Joanne. 2006. Social Exclusion, Drugs, and Policy. Drugs, Policy and Politics. Editor R. Hughes, R. Lart, dan P. Higate. Open University Press. Maidenhead. 1-17.

Neale, Joanne dan Brown, Caral. 2016. “We are Always in Some Form of Contact”: Friendships Among Homeless Drug and Alcohol Users Living in Hostels. Health and Social Care in the Community. 24 (5): 557–566.

Oliver, W. M., Hill, J., dan Marion, N. E. 2011. When the President Speaks . . . : An Analysis of Presidential Influence Over Public Opinion Concerning the War on Drugs. Criminal Justice Review. 36 (4): 456–469.

Omori, M. K. 2013. Moral Panics and Morality Policy: The Impact of Media, Political Ideology, Drug Use, and Manufacturing on Methamphetamine Legislation in the United States. Journal of Drug Issues. 43 (4): 517–534.

Paley, Dawn. 2015. Drug War as Neoliberal Trojan Horse. Latin American Perspectives. 42 (5): 109–132.

Pamungkas, Sri-Bintang. 2014. Ganti Rezim Ganti Sistem:Pergulatan Menguasai Nusantara. El Bisma. Jakarta.

Pearson, Geoffrey. 1987. Social Deprivation, Unemployment, and Patterns of Heroin Use. A Land Fit for Heroin? Drug Policies, Prevention and Practice. Editor Nicholas Dorn dan Nigel South. Macmillan Education. New York. 62-94.

Pelajaran dari Pengakuan Freddy. 2016, 2 Agustus. Media Indonesia. 1.

Pemerintah Jokowi Potong Dana Rehabilitasi Korban Narkoba. 2016, 2 Agustus. DW. Diakses pada 18 Oktober 2016.

Percy-Smith, Janie. 2000. Introduction: The Contours of Social Exclusion. Policy Responses to Social Exclusion: Towards Inclusion?. Editor Janie Percy-Smith. Open University Press. Philadelphia. 1-21.

Portugal's Drug Policy: Treating, Not Punishing, 2009, 27 Agustus. The Economist. Diakses pada 12 April 2017.

Purwatiningsih, S. 2001. Penyalahgunaan Narkoba di Indonesia. Populasi. 12 (1): 37–54.

Rincón-ruiz, A., dan Kallis, G. 2013. Caught in The Middle, Colombia’s War on Drugs and its Effects on Forest and People. Geoforum. 46 (2013): 60–78.

Rowan, Michael. 2016. Thank God for (Others’) Unanswered Prayers: The Failure of The Drug War …Cheap Drugs…Lower Rates of Serious Crime…The Logic Adds Up, but What Next?. Dialectical Anthropology. 1-8.

Schack, Todd. 2011. Twenty-first-century Drug Warriors: The Press, Privateers and The For-profit Waging of The War on Drugs. Media, War & Conflict. 4 (2): 142–161.

Scherlen, Renee. 2012. The Never-Ending Drug War: Obstacles to Drug War Policy Termination. PS: Political Science and Politics. 45 (1): 67–73.

Sekretariat Kabinet Republik Indonesia. 2016, 26 Juni. Sambutan Presiden Joko Widodo pada Puncak Peringatan Hari Anti Narkotika Internasional (HANI) Tahun 2016, 26 Juni 2016, di Pinangsia Taman Sari, Jakarta Barat. Diakses pada 22 Oktober 2016.

Siagian, Kristian. 2015, 20 Agustus. Memikirkan Kembali Arah Penanganan Narkoba di Indonesia. Sindonews. Diakses pada 24 April 2016.

Sirin, C. V. 2011. From Nixon’s War on Drugs to Obama’s Drug Policies Today: Presidential Process in Addressing Racial Injustices and Disparities. Race, Gender & Class Journal. 18 (3/4): 82–99.

Stevens, Alex. 2012. Portuguese Drug Policy Shows That Decriminalisation Can Work, but Only Alongside Improvements in Health and Social Policies. Blog LSE. Diakses 1 Agustus 2016.

Stevens, A., Berto, D., Frick, U., Kerschl, V., McSweeney, T., Schaaf, S., … Werdenich, W. 2007. The Victimization of Dependent Drug Users Findings from a European Study, UK. European Journal of Criminology. 4 (4): 385–408.

Syahra, Rusydi. 2010. Eksklusi Sosial: Perspektif Baru Untuk Memahami Deprivasi dan Kemiskinan. Jurnal Masyarakat dan Budaya LIPI Edisi Khusus. 12 (3): 1-34.

Thong, Denny. 2011. Memanusiakan Manusia: Menata Jiwa Membangun Bangsa. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta.

Valenzuela, C. M. 2013. The “War on Drugs” and The “New Strategy”: Identity Constructions of The United States, U.S. Drug Users and Mexico. Mexican Law Review. 5 (2): 245–275.

Van der Kroef, Justus M. 1985. "Petrus": Patterns of Prophylactic Murder in Indonesia. Asian Survey. 25 (7): 745-759.

Van Luijk, E. W. dan van Ours, J. C. 2001. The Effects of Government Policy on Drug Use: Java, 1875–1904. The Journal of Economic History. 61 (1): 1–18.

Widhyharto, Derajad S. 2015. Biaya Sosial Pencegahan Penyalahgunaan Narkoba di Kampus. UGM Mengajak: Raih Prestasi Tanpa Narkoba. Editor Sri Suryawati, Derajad S. W., dan Koentjoro. Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta. 60-74.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 5307 | views : 3341


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.