Perubahan Struktur dan Komposisi Hutan Rawa Gambut Menggunakan Citra Penginderaan Jauh dan Pendekatan Ekologis di Kawasan Bekas Pengembangan Lahan Gambut Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.7531

Raden Mas Sukarna(1*)

(1) Jurusan Kehutanan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Palangka Raya
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Pengembangan lahan gambut (PLG) satu juta hektar untuk lahan pertanian antara tahun 1995-1998 di Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah telah menyebabkan perubahan yang nyata terhadap struktur dan komposisi hutannya, dan secara langsung memberikan dampak terhadap keseimbangan fungsi ekologisnya. Perubahan hutan rawa gambut (HRG) yang relatif cepat belum sepenuhnya dapat diikuti dengan kegiatan evaluasi riil, karena luasnya kawasan dan akses yang terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperkirakan perubahan struktur dan komposisi HRG antara tahun 2003-2010 menggunakan teknik penginderaan jauh dan pendekatan ekologis dikawasan bekas PLG dengan luas ± 368.000 ha. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi citra penginderaan jauh melalui model kerapatan kanopi hutan, berhasil menentukan klasifikasi dan distribusi perubahan struktur dan komposisi HRG dan kondisi ekologisnya secara efektif. Kawasan HRG dengan kondisi ekologis alamiah dan sub alamiah telah berkurang luasnya sebesar 1,49 %, kawasan hutan semi alamiah dan transisi ke semi alamiah bertambah luasnya sebesar 3,69 %, dan kawasan hutan transisi dan non alamiah bertambah luasnya sebesar 4,39 %. Fakta ini menggambarkan bahwa kawasan HRG bekas PLG saat ini mengalami penurunan keragaman jenis-jenis endemik dengan indeks antara 0,5 - 2,5 yang mengakibatkan kurang stabilnya fungsi ekologi atau ekosistemnya.

Katakunci: hutan rawa gambut, penginderaan jauh, ekologi, struktur dan komposisi hutan

 

Structural and Composition Changes of Peat Swampeat Forests Using Remote Sensing and Ecological Approaches at the Abandoned Peat Development Site in Central Kalimantan Province

Abstract

Peatland project of one million hectares to agricultural land between 1995 and 1998, the so-called Mega Rice Project (MRP) in Central Kalimantan province, have significantly changed both structure and composition of peat swamp forest (PSF) as well as the balance of ecological functions. These quick changes have not been fully followed by real evaluation activities due to large area and limited access. To answer these problems, this study aimed to estimate these changes between 2003 and 2010 using remote sensing techniques and ecological approach on approximately 368,000 ha of ex-MRP area. The results showed that the application of remote sensing imagery through Forest Canopy Density (FCD) models were able to determine both forest classification and distribution effectively, including its ecological conditions. The natural and sub-natural PSF area had decreased by 1.49%, semi natural and its transition increased by 3.69%. Non natural and its transition increased by 4.39%. These facts illustrate that PSF on ex-MRP area was decreasing in term of its endemic species diversity with index between 0.5 and 2.5. Consequently, its ecological or ecosystem functions were also unstable.


Keywords


peat swamp forest; remote sensing; ecology; structure and forest composition

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.7531

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