Konservasi Global, Taman Nasional dan Praktek Lokal di Pulau Siberut, Sumatera Barat

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.582

Darmanto Darmanto(1*)

(1) Enviromental Science, UNESCO, Jakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Taman Pulau SIberut (Sumatera Barat) dikenal memiliki keanekaragaman hayati tinggi. Dengan luas 403.500 ha, pulau ini mengandung jenis-jenis endemik (terutama primatanya), keunikan ekologi dan dihuni ‘masyarakat adat’ yang diasumsikan memiliki pengetahuan ekologi tradisional. Pendekatan politik ekologi dan metode etnografi digunakan untuk memaparkan sejarah dan praktek konservasi Siberut. Wacana konservasi Siberut sangat dipengaruhi narasi krisis biologi global, penelitian ilmiah dan kebijakan pemerintah. Pemantapan wacana konservasi mewujud dalam pembentukan taman nasional tahun 1993 melalui proyek PKAT dengan dana hutang Bank Pembangunan Asia. Isu konservasi  tidak mudah diterapkan dan seringkali tidak sesuai dengan praktek lokal dan pandangan orang Siberut sendiri mengenai bagaimana keanekaragaman hayati seharusnya ditata dan dikelola. Masyarakat siberut memiliki interpretasi, artikulasi dan memproduksi makna konservasi yang berbeda dengan pegawai taman nasional dan actor-aktor lain dari luar. Hubungan antara orang Siberut dengan taman nasional diwarnai ciri negosiatif, mendua dan tidak stabil. Negosiasi makna mengenai bagaimana sumberdaya dikelola dari actor yang berbeda-beda kepentingannya menghasilkan dilemma konservasi.

Kata kunci: Konservasi, politik ekologi, taman nasional, praktek lokal, siberut.


Global Conservation, National Park and Local Practices in Siberut Island, West Sumatera

Abstract

Siberut Island (West Sumatra) has high profile for conservation. This island of 403,500 ha has endemic species, ecological uniqueness and indigenous peoples assumed to have traditional ecological knowledge. Using ecological politics, this article will describe history of biodiversity conservation in Siberut. Discourse of Siberut conservation influenced by biological crisis narrative in the global context, scientific research and government policy. Conservation discourse was institutionalized during national parkestablishment in 1993 together with PKAT project and foreign debt from Asian Development Bank Nevertheless, conservation issue is not easy to implement in the local context and coherent with local practice. Indigenous people of Siberut interpret, articulate and produce meaning for conservation differently with other actors. The relationship between indigenous peoples and conservation issue has been characterized with negotiable features, ambiguity and instability. Meaning negotiation on how resources should be managed by actors with different interests resulted in dilemma of conservation.


Keywords


Conservation; Siberut; ecological politic; national park; local practice

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.582

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