Analisis Perambahan Hutan di Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan (Studi Kasus Desa Tirom Kecamatan Pematang Sawa Kabupaten Tanggamus)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.578

Deni Deni(1*)

(1) Departemen Konservasi Sumberdaya Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Kuningan, Jawa Barat
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Taman Nasional di Indonesia sebagian besar memiliki masalah terkait keberadaan manusia. Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan (TNBBS), sejak penunjukannya selalu ada konflik dengan masyarakat di sekitarnya. Di TNBBS telah ada tindakan penggunaan lahan illegal dimana hal ini sering disebut dengan perambahan hutan. Perambahan hutan yang terjadi di Desa Tirom menjadi menarik untuk diperhatikan karena Desa Tirom memiliki penanganan konflik yang lebih rumit dibandingkan dengan desa-desa lainnya di sekitar TNBBS.

Penelitian ini mencoba mengungkap faktor apa saja yang menyebabkan tindakan perambahan hutan oleh masyarakat Desa Tirom di Kecamatan Pematang Sawa, Kabupaten Tanggamus. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif kualitatif dan metode kuantitatif untuk menguji factor kepemilikan lahan legal dan pendapatan masyarakat sebagai factor yang mempengaruhi tindakan perambahan hutan. Dalam metode kualitatif, responden dipilih secara purposive dan wawancara dilakukan secara mendalam, sementara itu teknik survey dilakukan untuk menguji secara kuantitatif.

Berdasarkan hasil wawancara mendalam disimpulkan adanya beberapa masalah social ekonomi yang dialami masyarakat Desa Tirom seperti pendapatan rendah, sedikitnya sumber penghidupan dan kurangnya kapasitas masyarakat dalam mengelola pertanian lahan sempit. Berdasarkan hasil analisis regresi diketahui bahwa tidak ada hubungan yang kuat antara tindakan perambahan lahan dengan pendapatan dan kepemilikan lahan pribadi. Studi ini menunjukkan juga bahwa ada faktor lain (selain faktor pendapatan dan kepemilikan lahan pribadi) yang menyebabkan perambahan hutan oleh masyarakat Desa Tirom. Faktor-faktor ini perlu dikaji dalam penelitian lebih lanjut.

Kata kunci: Perambahan, Desa Tirom, Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan


Analysis of Forest Encroachment in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (Study case in Tirom Village, Pematang Sawa Sub Regency, Tanggamus Regency)

Abstract

Most of National Parks in Indonesia have their problems related to human existence in conservation area. Since its establishment, there has been a conflict between Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (BBSNP) with the surrounding communities. In the BBSNP, there have been acts of illegal landusage where it is commonly referred as forest encroachment. Forest encroachment in Tirom village is becoming interesting to study because it needs more complicated handling compared to other villages.

This study aims to reveal the factors led to forest encroachment action by people of Tirom village, Pematang Sawa sub-district, Tanggamus District. This social research used descriptive qualitative and quantitative methods to test the legal land ownership factors and people income as factors affecting forest encroachment action. In this method, respondents were chosen purposively and interview was conducted deeply (in-depth interview) on each respondent.

Based on the results of in-depth interviews it is concluded that there are several socio-economic problems experienced by the Tirom village including low income, limited sources of livelihood, and low capacity of communities in managing small areas. Based on regression analysis resultsit was shown that there is no strong relationship between the act of appropriation (as seen from the encroachment of land area) with revenues and private land ownership. This study also shows that there are other factors (beside income and private land ownership factors) that led to forest encroachment by the Tirom Village communities. These other factors need to be tested through further research.


Keywords


Encroachment; Tirom Village; Bukit Selatan Barisan National Park

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.578

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