Partisipasi Masyarakat Lokal dalam Pengembangan Ekowisata

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.57462

Kaharuddin Kaharuddin(1*), Satyawan Pudyatmoko(2), Chafid Fandeli(3), Wisjnu Martani(4)

(1) Departemen Konservasi Sumber Daya Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Univervsitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Departemen Konservasi Sumber Daya Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Univervsitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Departemen Konservasi Sumber Daya Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Univervsitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kelompok tani hutan kemasyarakatan (HKm) Mandiri Kalibiru mengelola hutan lindung yang salah satu kegiatannya berupa usaha pengelolaan ekowisata. Keterlibatan masyarakat lokal menjadi pelaku wisata merupakan ciri menonjol dalam usaha jasa tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyajikan jenis partisipasi masyarakat lokal dalam mengembangkan ekowisata, dan peran kelembangaan HKm dalam mendorong masyarakat lokal berpartisipasi dalam pengembangan ekowisata. Konsep partisipasi level perencanaan, pelaksanaan dan pemanfaatan digambarkan pada tiga periode perkembangan obyek wisata: periode ke-1 perintisan, periode ke-2 mulai berkembang dan periode ke-3 berkembang. Pengumpalan data menggunakan teknik wawancara mendalam (indept interview) dan kajian dokumen. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif dan proposisi teoritis. Terdapat perbedaan partisipasi masyarakat lokal pada ke tiga periode perkembangan obyek wisata tersebut. Partisipasi level perencanaan sangat bergantung pada pendamping selama periode ke-1 dan 2, namun ketika obyek wisata sudah berkembang perencanaan mampu dilakukan secara mandiri. Partisipasi level pelaksanaan pada periode ke-1 dan 2 dilakukan secara gotong royong, namun pada periode ke-3 pelaksanaan pembangunan menggunakan tenaga profesional. Partisipasi level pemanfaaatan dimulai pada periode ke-2 yang melibatkan anggota HKm dan tokoh pemuda secara terbatas, dan pada periode ke-3 masyarakat Kalibiru yang memanfaatkan peluang kerja dan usaha mencapai 85%. Tingginya partisipasi masyarakat tersebut tidak lepas dari peran pendamping, pemerintah dan aturan lembaga HKm dalam fasilitasi dan penyediaan ruang partisipasi bagi masyarakat lokal.

 

Local Communities Participation in Ecotourism Development

Abstract

The community forest Mandiri Kalibiru manages of protected forests one of activities is ecotourism management. The involvement of local communities as ecotourism actors is a major feature in the service business. This study aims to present the type of local communities participation in developing ecotourism, and the role of HKm institution in encouraging the local communities to participate in ecotourism. The concept of participation at the planning, implementation and utilization level is illustrated in three periods of tourism development: the first period-pioneering, the second-developing and the third-developed. Data collection uses in-depth interview techniques and document review. Data analysis was performed descriptively and theoretical propositions. There are differences in local communities participation in the three periods. Participation in the planning level is very dependent on the companion during periods 1 and 2, but when the third period, the planning can be done independently. Participation in the implementation level in periods 1 and 2 was carried out cooperatively, but in the third period, the implementation of the development uses professional staff. Participation in utilization rates began in the second period involving limited HKm members and youth leaders, and the 3rd period the Kalibiru community involved took advantage of work and business opportunities which reached 85%. The high local communities participation is inseparable from the role of partners, government and HKm institutional regulations in facilitating and providing of participating space for local communities.


Keywords


community forestry; ecotourism; local communities; participation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.57462

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