Sifat Ketahanan Api dan Degradasi Panas Tiga Jenis Kayu Dilapisi Arang Kayu Sengon

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.57460

Joko Sulistyo(1*), Sri Nugroho Marsoem(2), Tomy Listyanto(3), Yus Andhini Bhekti Pertiwi Bhekti Pertiwi(4)

(1) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kayu sebagai biomaterial memiliki sifat yang tidak menguntungkan yaitu kayu dapat terbakar. Kebakaran dalam rumah dengan kostruksi material kayu membahayakan keselamatan jiwa manusia. Upaya telah dilakukan dalam mencegah kebakaran dengan meningkatan daya tahan material kayu. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengembangkan material tahan api berbasis karbon (CFR) dari arang kayu sengon. Efektifitas CFR dari arang sengon untuk meningkatkan ketahanan api pada kayu jati, meranti merah dan pinus dipelajari. CFR dibuat melalui pencampuran serbuk arang sengon berukuran 10 mesh dan perekat PVAC dengan perbandingan (60:40), kemudian dikempa pada suhu 80 °C dengan tekanan 70 MPa selama 15 menit sehingga diperoleh lembaran komposit karbon berukuran 4 mm x 18 cm x 18 cm. Kayu jati, meranti merah dan pinus yang dilapisi dengan lembaran CFR diuji ketahanan terhadap api melalui pengumpanan pada api selama 1500 detik berdasarkan metode ASTM E 69-02 dengan modifikasi. Lembaran CFR dari arang sengon efektif untuk meningkatkan ketahanan api ketiga jenis kayu. Keberadaan lapisan CFR pada permukaan kayu efektif berfungsi sebagai solid material penghambat yang mampu memblok panas dari api dan melindungi dari terjadinya degradasi material kayu, yang ditunjukan dengan persentase luas penampang melintang yang tidak terbakar pada jati CFR sebesar 68,6% yang lebih besar dibanding jati kontrol sebesar 57,9%, rendahnya persentase kehilangan berat pada kayu pinus CFR dan meranti merah CFR sebesar 50,56% dan 26,57% dibandingkan kontrolnya sebesar 76,98% dan 30,72%, dan perubahan berat yang relatif sama dengan kontrol pada kayu jati dan meranti merah sampai 700-1.160 detik. 

 

Fire Retardancy Properties and Thermal Degradation of Three Timber Species Overlayed by Sengon Wood Charcoal

Abstract

Wood as biomaterial poses unfavorable property that is wood can burn. Fire disaster in wooden houses threaten human lifes. Efforts have been implemented to improve fire retardancy properties of timbers for wooden houses. This research was carried out to develop carbon-based fire-retardant materials (CFR) overlay on three timber species. The effectiveness of carbon-based fire-retardant material from sengon charcoal to improve fire resistance in teak, red meranti and pine timbers was studied. The CFR materials were prepared by mixing 10 mesh sengon charcoal powder and PVAC adhesive with a ratio (w/w) 0f 60:40 followed by a hot pressing at a temperature of 80 °C with a pressure of 70 MPa for 15 minutes resulting 4 mm x 18 cm x 18 cm carbon sheets. Teak, red meranti and pine timbers overlayed by CFR sheet from sengon charcoal were tested through feeding on fire for 1500 seconds based on ASTM E 6-02 method with a modification. CFR sheets from sengon charcoal were effective to improve the fire resistance of the three species of timbers. CFR overlayed on timber surface was functioned as solid barrier material which was able to block thermal from fire and protected timber from thermal degradation showing by lesser percentage of cross section unburning area on teak CFR i.e. 68.6% than that of teak control i.e. 57.9%, lower percentage of weight loss on pinus CFR and red meranti CFR i.e. 50.56% and 26.57% respectively comparing with the controls i.e. 76.98% and 30.72%, and similar values of weight change percentage between teak CFR and red meranti CFR with the control until 700-1,160 s.


Keywords


fire retardancy properties; fire retardant material; sengon, teak; red meranti and pine charcoal

Full Text:

PDF


References

Anonim. 1976. Vademecum Kehutanan Indonesia, Departemen Pertanian, Direktorat Jenderal Kehutanan

BNPB. 2014. Data Kejadian Bencana Kebakaran Permukiman dalam 1 Bulan Terakhir, geospasial.bnpb.go.id/ pantauanbencana/data/datakbmukim.php. Diakses Maret 2014.

Bakirtzis D, Delichatsios MA, Liodakis S, Ahmed W. 2009. Fire Retardancy Impact of Sodium Bicarbonate on Ligno-Cellulosic Materials. Thermochimica Acta 486: 11-19.

Byrne CE, Nagle DC. 1997. Carbonization of Wood for Advanced Materials Applications.

Carbon 35: 259-266. Byrne CE, Nagle DC. 1997. Carbonized Wood Monolith – Characterization. Carbon 35: 267-273.

Costes L, Laoutid F, Brohez S, Dubois P. 2017. Bio-based Flame Retardants: When Nature Meets Fire Protection. Material Science and Engineering R 117: 1-25.

Dinwoodie JM. 2000. Timber: Its nature and behavior. Second Edition. E & FN Spon. New York.

Gaff M, Kacik F, Gasparik M, Todaro L, Jones D, Corleto R, Osvaldova LM, Cekovska H. 2019. The Effect of Synthetic and Natural Fire-Retardants on Burning and Chemical Characteristics of Thermally Modified Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) Wood. Construction and Building Materials 200: 551-558.

Garcia M, Hidalgo J, Garmedia I, Garcia-Jaca J. 2009. Wood- Plastic Composites with Better Fire Retardancy and Durability Performance. Composites: Part A. 40: 1772- 1776.

Gomez-Serrano V, Valenzuela-Calahorro C, Pastor-Villegas J. 1993. Characterization of Rockrose Wood, Char and Activated Carbon. Carbon 4: 355-364.

Haurie L, Gilardo MP, Lacasta AM, Monton J, Sonnier R. 2019. Influence of Different Parameters in the Fire Behaviour of Seven Hardwood Species. Fire Safety Journal 107: 193-201.

Ishihara S. 1996. Carbon Composites. In Salamone JC (ed) Polymeric material encyclopedia 2. CRC Press.Boca Raton

Kim DY, Kwon GJ, Kang JH. 2015. Dependence of the Characteristics of Wood Charcoal on the Carbonization Conditions. Journal of the Korean Physical Society 67: 694-699.

Kretschmann DE, Hernandez R. 2006. Grading Timber and Glued Structural Members. In J.C.F. Walker (ed) Primary Wood Processing: Principles and Practice. 2nd Edition. Springer. Dordrecht. The Netherlands.

Lee YR, Kim SC, Le H, Jeong HM, Raghu AV, Reddy KR, Kim BK. 2011. Graphite Oxides as Effective Fire Retardant of Epoxy Resin. Macromolecular Research 19: 66-71.

Martawijaya A, Kartasujana I, Kadir K, Prawira SA. 1981. Atlas Kayu Indonesia. Jilid I. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan.

Martawijaya A, Kartasujana I, Mandang YI, Prawira SA, Kadir K. 1989. Atlas Kayu Indonesia. Jilid II. Departemen Kehutanan. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan.

Mlaouhi A, Khouaja A, Saoudi H, Depeyre D. 1999. Trials of Wood Carbonization of Some Forest and Fruit- Bearing Species. Renewable Energy 16: 1118-1121.

Qi J, Zhao J, Xu Y, Wang Y, Han K. 2018. Segmented Heating Carbonization of Biomass: Yields, Property and Estimation of Heating Value of Chars. Energy 144: 301-311.

Su WY, Subyakto, Hata T, Nishimiya K, Imamura Y, Ishihara S. 1998. Improvement of Fire Retardancy of Plywood by Incorporating Boron or Phosphate Compounds in the Glue. Journal of Wood Science 44: 131-136.

Subyakto, Subiyanto B, Hata T, Kawai S. 2003. Evaluation of Fire-Retardant Properties of Edge-Joint Lumber from Tropical Fast-Growing Wood Using Cone Calorimeter and a Standard Fire Test. Journal of Wood Science 49: 241-247.

Subyakto, Hata T, Ide I, Yamane T, Kawai S. 2004. Fire Protection of a Laminated Veneer Lumber Joint by Wood Carbon Phenolic Spheres Sheeting. Journal of Wood Science 50: 157-161.

Sulistyo J, Hata T, Marsoem SN. 2012. Microstructure of Charcoal Produced by Traditional Technique. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium of Indonesia Wood Research Society. Faculty of Forestry Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta.

Silva FTM, Ataide CH. 2019. Valorization of Eucalyptus urograndis wood via carbonization: Product Yields and Characterization. Energy 172: 509-516.

Tomak ED, Cavdar AD. 2013. Limited Oxygen Index Levels of Impregnated Scots Pine Wood. Thermochimica Acta 573: 181-185.

Tsoumis G. 1991. Science and Technology of Wood: Structure, Properties, Utilization. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York.

White RH, Dietenberger MA. 1999. Fires Safety in Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material. USDA. Forest Service.

Wu Y, Yao C, Hu Y, Yang S, Qing Y, Wu Q. 2014. Flame Retardancy and Thermal Degradation Behavior of Red Gum Wood Treated with Hydrate Magnesium Chloride. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 22: 3536-3542.

Wang YC, Zhao JP, Meng X. 2019. Effect of Expandable Graphite on Polyester Resin-Based Intumescent Flame Retardant Coating. Progress in Organic Coatings 132: 178-183.

Yan L, Xu Z, Lu D. 2019. Synthesis and Application of Novel Magnesium Phosphate Ester Flame Retardants for Transparent Intumescent Fire-Retardant Coatings Applied on Wood Substrate. Progress in Organic Coatings 129: 327-337.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.57460

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 251 | views : 192

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


© Redaksi Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan
Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jl. Agro No 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
Telp. (0274) 512102, 550541, 6491420
Fax. (0274) 550541 E-mail : jik@ugm.ac.id
website : jurnal.ugm.ac.id/jikfkt/

 

Indexed by:

 

Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan is under the license of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International

Creative Commons License