Peranan Semut di Ekosistem Transformasi Hutan Hujan Tropis Dataran Rendah

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.57459

Noor Farikhah Haneda(1*), Nisfi Yuniar(2)

(1) Departemen Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Jawa Barat
(2) Balai Taman Nasional Manupeu Tanah Daru dan Laiwangi Wanggameti, Waingapu
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Deforestasi atau perubahan fungsi dari hutan menjadi non-hutan berperan dalam perubahan ekosistem dan spesies di dalamnya. Serangga sebagai salah satu fauna di dalamnya merupakan aspek yang menarik untuk dikaji khususnya semut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengidentifikasi peranan-peranan dari genus semut yang ditemukan di ekosistem transformasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Desa Bungku, Kecamatan Bajubang, Kabupaten Batanghari, Provinsi Jambi. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah membuat plot pengamatan secara purposive sampling. Plot pengamatan dipasang di empat eksosistem hutan dengan jumlah masing - masing ekosistem sebanyak empat plot. Setiap plot memiliki lima sub plot yang tersebar di empat eksosistem hutan untuk pemasangan pitfall trap. Teknik pengambilan sampel semut menggunakan pitfall trap di empat ekosistem. Empat ekosistem tersebut yaitu hutan sekunder, perkebunan kelapa sawit, kebun karet, dan hutan karet. Hasil penelitian ditemukan sebanyak 33 genus dari 6 subfamili. Selanjutnya dari 33 genus dikelompokkan berdasarkan peranannya. Berdasarkan peranannya terdapat 46% pencari makan , 36% predator, 3% semut tentara, 3% pemakan bangkai, dan 3% lainnya (semut pemanen/pemetik, omnivora, predator, dan pemakan bangkai). Camponotus sebagai genus dominan memiliki peranan pencari makan, dan Pheidole mempunyai peranan sebagai penghancur biji dan sebagian lainnya adalah omnivora.

 

The Role of Ants in Lowland Tropical Rainforest Transformation

Abstract

Deforestation or changes functions from forest to non-forest play a role in changing ecosystems and the species within them. Insect as one of the fauna is an interesting aspect to study, especially ants. Aims of this study is to identify the roles of the genus of ants that found in the transformation ecosystem. This study was conducted in Bungku Village, Bajubang District, Batanghari Regency, Jambi. Method used in this study is to make a plot of observation by purposive sampling. Ant sampling techniques use pitfall traps in four ecosystems i.e.. secondary forest, oil palm plantation,rubber plantation, and jungle rubber. This study found 33 genera from 6 subfamilies. Furthermore, 33 genera are grouped based on their roles, i.e. (1) 46% foragers, (2) 36% for predators, (3) 3% for army ants, (4) 3% for scavengers, and (5) 3% for others (harvesting ants, omnivores, predators and scavengers too). Camponotus as the dominant genus has a role for foragers, and Pheidole has a role as a seed destroyer and the other part is omnivorous.


Keywords


ants; deforestation; roles; transformation ecosystems; tropical rainforest

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.57459

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