Aktivitas Larvasida Ekstrak Daun Tumih (Combretocarpus rotundatus (Miq.) Danser) terhadap Larva Aedes aegypti

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.46208

Renhart Jemi(1*), Royda Dara Ertini Damanik(2), Lies Indrayanti(3)

(1) Jurusan Kehutanan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Palangka Raya
(2) Jurusan Kehutanan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Palangka Raya
(3) Jurusan Kehutanan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Palangka Raya
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kadar ekstrak daun tumih dan menguji aktivitas larvasidanya terhadap Aedes aegypti. Daun tumih dimaserasi dan difraksinasi dengan pelarut metanol, n-heksana, etil asetat, dan etanol. Aktivitas larvasida ekstrak diuji dengan konsentrasi 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, dan 100 ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan rendemen dari ekstraksi daun tumih pada berbagai larutan adalah sebagai berikut ekstrak metanol sebesar 15%, n-heksana 51%, etil asetat 35% dan etanol 85%. Hasil uji fitokimia menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak metanol daun tumih positif mengandung senyawa alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, dan tanin. Pengujian larvasida ekstrak daun tumih menunjukkan pengaruh terhadap mortalitas larva Aedes aegypti. Aktivitas larvasida ekstrak daun tumih optimum pada ekstrak etil asetat dengan LC(50) = 24,54 ppm, ekstrak metanol LC(50) = 45,65 ppm, ekstrak etanol LC(50) = 46,77 ppm dan ekstrak n-heksana LC(50) = 48,97 ppm. Ekstrak etil asetat daun tumih merupakan ekstrak teraktif dalam aktivitas larvasidanya. Selanjutnya, analisis FT-IR menunjukkan adanya gugus fungsi C-H alkana dan C = C aromatik. Gugus fungsi tersebut diduga penyusun senyawa alkaloid, flavanoid, saponin, dan tanin. Hasil analisis LCMS mengindikasikan adanya 7 senyawa bioaktif yaitu hexadecyl-ferulate, 21-o-methyl toosendanopentaol, 23-acetate alismaketone, dehydroxy-24-acetate alisol, physanol, prosapogenin 2, dan stigmastan-3,6-dione

 

Larvacide Activity of Tumih (Combretocarpus rotundatus (Miq.)Danser) Leaf Extracts against Aedes aegypti

Abstract

This research aimed to measure the content of Combretocarpus Rotundatus (Miq.) Danser leaf extracts and to test its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. The leaves were macerated and fractionated using methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol. The extract contents from the leaves extraction were metanol extract of 15%, n-hexane extract of 51%, ethyl acetate extract of 35% and ethanol extract of 85%. The larvicidal activity of extracts was tested with concentration of 0, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm. Phytochemicals test exhibited that the methanol extract of Combretocarpus rotundatus (Miq.) Danser leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. Larvicidal test conducted on the extracts exhibited an effect on the mortality levels against Aedes aegypti larvae. The larvicidal activity of leaf extracts was optimum in the ethyl acetate extract at LC(50) = 24.54 ppm, methanol extract at LC(50) = 45.65 ppm, ethanol extract at LC(50) = 46.77 ppm, and n-hexane extract at LC(50 = 48.97 ppm. It was found that the ethyl acetate extract was the most active larvicide. FT-IR analysis showed existing functional groups of C-H alkanes and C=C aromatics. Those functional groups were assumed to be flavanoid, alkaloid, saponin, and tannin constituents. Results of LC-MS analysis indicated 7 bioactive compounds i.e.hexadecyl-ferulate, 21-o-methyl toosendanopentaol, 23-acetate alismaketone, dehydroxy-24-acetate alisol, prosapogenin 2, and stigmastan-3,6- dione.


Keywords


Aedes aegypti; mortalit ; larvicide; leaves extract; LC(50)

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.46208

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