Okupansi Kukang Jawa (Nycticebus javanicus E. Geoffroy 1812) di Hutan Tropis Dataran Rendah di Kemuning, Bejen, Temanggung, Jawa Tengah

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.46141

Mahfut Sodik(1*), Satyawan Pudyatmoko(2), Pujo Semedi Hargo Yuwono(3)

(1) Program Doktoral Ilmu Kehutanan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Faktor kehilangan/berkurangnya habitat, dan fragmentasi habitat dapat memberikan dampak buruk terhadap kukang Jawa (Nycticebus javanicus), satwa primata nokturnal yang tergolong dalam kategori Critically Endangered. Kukang Jawa yang hidup di hutan yang terfragmentasi merasakan dampak negatif dari faktor- faktor tersebut dan hal tersebut juga dapat memengaruhi okupansi dalam sebuah kawasan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi okupansi habitat oleh kukang Jawa di hutan dataran rendah yang terfragmentasi di Kemuning, Temanggung, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia. Untuk mem­perkirakan proporsi penggunaan wilayah, probabilitas detek­si (detection probability) dan faktor – faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap okupansi habitat oleh kukang Jawa, kami menggunakan occupancy model of a single-season. Sebanyak 5 kali ulangan survei malam pada tahun 2017 digunakan sebagai data pokok di dalam model okupansi. Metode pengambilan data lingkungan dan data anthropogenic menggunakan observasi lapangan dan interview dengan masyarakat lokal. Kami membagi lokasi penelitian menjadi 141 grid dengan ukuran 200 m x 200 m (4 ha) sebagai acuan dalam survei malam dengan jalur. Data kovariat lingkungan yang diukur adalah jarak dari jalan, jarak dari tepi hutan, jarak dari pemukiman, jarak dari sumber air, ketinggian tempat, dan kemiringan lahan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa kukang Jawa menghuni habitat sekitar 23,2% dari keseluruhan areal di hutan Kemuning. Jarak dari jalan dan jarak dari sumber air (sungai) berkorelasi positif terhadap tingkat hunian, sedang jarak dari pemukiman berkorelasi negatif terhadap tingkat hunian dari kukang Jawa. Data dan informasi kuantitatif yang dihasilkan dari penelitian ini penting untuk mengetahui kebutuhan sumber daya jangka panjang populasi kukang Jawa khususnya di hutan Kemuning. Selanjutnya diharapkan pemerintah Indonesia atau stakeholder terkait dapat melakukan upaya konservasi dan rencana strategi pengelolaan spesies kukang Jawa dengan baik khususnya di hutan dataran rendah yang terfragmentasi.


Occupancy of Javan Slow Loris (Nyticebus javanicus E. Geoffroy 1812) in Kemuning Tropical Low Land Forest, Bejen, Temanggung, Central Java 

Abstract 

Habitat loss and landscape fragmentation have a negative impact on the Javan slow loris (Nycticebus javanicus), a Critically Endangered nocturnal primate species. Slow lorises in remaining forest fragments might be suffered and affect their occupancy behavior. We aim to investigate the determinant factors for the probability of habitat occupancy by the javan slow loris in Kemuning forest fragment of Temanggung District, Central Java. To estimate the site occupancy rate, detection probability, and the determinant factor of site use by Nycticebus javanicus, we employed the occupancy model of a single-season using night surveys. Five repeated night surveys in 2017 were used as the main basis data for the occupancy model. We used direct observation and interview with locals to collect data on environmental and anthropogenic features. We divided the study area into 141 grids with 200 m x 200 m (4 ha) each which were the basis for the night survey following existing walking paths. The influence of six covariates was assessed to determine of site use by Nycticebus javanicus: distance to road, distance to forest edge, distance to the settlement, distance to water source, altitude, and elevation. The result shows that the probability of site use occupied by Nycticebus javanicus was 23.2% of the total area. Distance to roads and distance to water source have a positive correlation with the probability of site use, whereas the influence of distance to settlements has a negative correlation with the site use of the species. Such quantitative data and information gained in this research are important to know for the long term resource needs of the Nycticebus javanicus, especially in the Kemuning forest. Therefore, the Indonesian Government or related stakeholders can formulate the detail conservation plans of the species, especially in the lowland fragmented tropical forest.



Keywords


Kemuning forest; night survey; Nycticebus javanicus; occupancy modelling; site use

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.46141

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