Pengaruh Kecepatan Pertumbuhan terhadap Sifat Fisika dan Mekanika Kayu Acacia Mangium Umur 4 Tahun Asal Wonogiri, Jawa Tengah

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.40162

Fanny Hidayati(1*), Ramadhani Ayu Purnama(2), Harry Praptoyo(3), Sri Sunarti(4)

(1) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No 1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan, Jl. Palagan Tentara Pelajar KM 15, Sleman 55582
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kebutuhan masyarakat akan kayu solid yang semakin meningkat, memberikan peluang bagi jenis pohon cepat tumbuh seperti Acacia mangium untuk digunakan sebagai bahan semi konstruksi maupun konstruksi. Secara umum, kualitas kayu dipengaruhi oleh sifat pertumbuhan terutama kecepatan pertumbuhan. Pengaruh kecepatan pertumbuhan terhadap sifat-sifat kayu mangium belum banyak di diteliti. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sifat fisika dan mekanika kayu mangium pada kecepatan tumbuh yang berbeda serta hubungan antara kerapatan dasar dengan sifat-sifat lain yang diuji. Sembilan pohon mangium umur 4 tahun yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berasal dari Kabupaten Wonogiri, Jawa Tengah. Adapun sifat-sifaf kayu yang diuji adalah kerapatan dasar, perubahan dimensi, rasio T/R, keteguhan lengkung statis (MOE dan MOR), keteguhan tekan sejajar dan tegak lurus serat. Selanjutnya data yang diperoleh diuji dengan one-way ANOVA. Sebagai hasilnya, sifat fisika dan mekanika kayu yang diuji menunjukkan hasil yang tidak berbeda nyata pada tiga kategori kecepatan tumbuh yang berbeda, kecuali pada penyusutan radialnya. Selanjutnya, kerapatan dasar berkorelasi positif secara signifikan terhadap penyusutan radial dan tangensial serta kekuatan tekan sejajar dan tegak lurus serat. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kerapatan dasar merupakan indikatoryang bagus untuk mempredikasi sifat fisika dan mekanika kayu mangium.

 

Effect of Growth Rate on Physical and Mechanical Properties of 4-year-old Acacia mangium Wood from Wonogiri, Central Java

Abstract

Increasing solid wood demand provides an opportunity to fast-growing wood species such as Acacia mangium as semi construction and construction materials. In general, the quality of wood is affected by growth characteristics such as radial growth rate. The study about effect of growth rate on the properties of mangium wood is limited in Indonesia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physical and mechanical properties of mangium wood at different growth rates. Furthermore, relationship between basic density and other properties was clarified. The nine mangium trees of 4-year-old used in this study were planted in Wonogiri Regency, Central Java. Basic density, shrinkage, T/R ratio, static bending strength (MOE and MOR), compressive strength parallel and perpendicular to grain were determined. The results were analyzed with one-way ANOVA. As a result, the physical and mechanical properties of the woods showed no significant difference in three different categories of growth rates, except for radial shrinkage. Furthermore, the basic density is positively significant correlated with radial and tangential shrinkage and also compressive strength parallel and perpendicular to grain. Based on these results, it is suggesting that basic density is a good indicator for predicting physical and mechanical properties of mangium wood.


Keywords


Acacia mangium; growth rate; mechanical properties; physical properties; young age

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.40162

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