Tingkat Kesamaan Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, dan Hibridnya Berdasarkan Sifat Anatomi Akar, Batang, dan Daun

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.40160

Sri Sunarti(1*), Visda Fitriana(2), Suharyanto Suharyanto(3)

(1) Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Jl. Palagan Tentara Pelajar KM 15 Purwobinangun, Pakem, Sleman
(2) Fakultas Biologi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Selatan, Mlati, Sleman, 55281
(3) Fakultas Biologi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Selatan, Mlati, Sleman, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Persilangan antara Acacia mangium dan Acacia auriculiformis akan menghasilkan hibrid akasia, baik secara alami maupun buatan. Seperti induknya, jenis hibrid akasia dikembangkan untuk mendukung ketersediaan bahan baku industri pulp dan kertas. Secara morfologi, A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, dan hibridnya (A. mangium xA. auriculiformis) dapat dengan mudah dibedakan pada tingkat semai. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat kesamaan antara A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, dan hibridnya berdasarkan perbedaan struktur anatomi mikroskopis pada akar, batang/ranting dan daun (filodia). Sampel akar, batang/ranting, dan daun (filodia) dibuat preparat semi permanen menggunakan teknik free-hand dan hasilnya diamati dengan image raster dan leaf clearing. Parameter yang diamati adalah ukuran jaringan penyusun akar, batang/ranting, dan daun(filodia) serta hubungan kekerabatan antara A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, dan hibridnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa antara A. mangium dan A. auriculiformis mempunyai tingkat kesamaan sebesar 55,26% dan hibrid A. mangium xA. auriculiformis mempunyai tingkat kesamaan dengan induk betina (A. mangium) lebih besar dibandingkan dengan induk jantan (A. auriculiformis), yaitu berturut-turut sebesar 60,53%-65,78% dan 52,63%-63,16%. Hibrid vigor mempunyai kekerabatan lebih dekat dengan hibrid intermediet dibandingkan dengan hibrid inferior, yaitu berturut-turut sebesar 78,95% dan 68,42%. Kemungkinan untuk mendapatkan hibrid unggul dengan persilangan dapat ditingkatkan dengan memilih pohon induk betina yang lebih unggul.


Similarity Index among Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, and its Hybrid Based on the Anatomical Properties of Root, Stem, and Leaf

Abstract

Crossing between Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis will result Acacia hybrid whether naturally or artificially. Acacia hybrid, as its parents, was developed to support pulp and paper industries. Morphological characteristics of leaves among A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, and its hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculifomris) were easily differentiated on nursery stage. This study was done to observe the anatomy of root, stem, and leaves of A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, and its hybrid for assessing their similarity. The samples of leaves, stems, and roots were made into semi-permanent object using freehand technique then the results were assessed using an image-raster and leaf clearing. The observed parameters were the anatomical structure in the root, stem, and leaves tissues as well as similarity index among A. mangium, A. auriculiformis, and its hybrid. The result showed that the similarity between A, mangium and A. auriculiformis was 55.26% and its hybrid were closer to A. mangium than A. auriculiformis with similarity index of 60.53%-65.78% and 52.63%-63-16%, respectively. Hybrid vigour showed a closer similarity to intermediate hybrid than inferior hybrid with similarity index of 78.95% and 68.42%. It is a great probability to obtain hybrid vigour by selecting good mother-trees due to the similarity index between hybrid and its mother tree.


Keywords


Acacia hybrid; freehand technique; image raster; leaf clearing; wood anatomy

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.40160

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