Studi Ekologi Kuantitatif Hutan Pilan Sebagai Dasar Pengembangan Kebun Raya Gianyar

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.40147

Farid Kuswantoro(1*), I Nyoman Lugrayasa(2), Wawan Sujarwo(3)

(1) Balai Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya "Eka Karya" Bali-LIPI Candikuning, Baturiti, Tabanan, Bali 82191
(2) Balai Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya "Eka Karya" Bali-LIPI Candikuning, Baturiti, Tabanan, Bali 82191
(3) Balai Konservasi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya "Eka Karya" Bali-LIPI Candikuning, Baturiti, Tabanan, Bali 82191
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penelitian ekologi kuantitatif diperlukan sebagai baseline dalam proses pembangunan dan pengembangan kebun raya di masa mendatang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan data vegetasi di kawasan hutan yang akan dibangun kebun raya dan menganalisisnya secara kuantitatif. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode petak kuadrat (PU), dengan petak ukur 20 m x 20 m untuk pengamatan tingkat pohon dan tiang, serta 2 mx 2 m untuk pengamatan tingkat tumbuhan bawah. Analisis data dilakukan mengunakan indeks nilai penting, indeks keanekaragaman ShannonWiener, indeks similaritas, analisis kluster, dan analisis komponen utama (PCA). Komunitas tumbuhan di hutan Pilan didominasi oleh Magnolia montana (Blume) Figlar dan Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr. pada tingkat pohon serta Daemonorops sp. pada tingkat tumbuhan bawah. Indeks keanekaragaman pada tingkat pohon dan tiang menunjukan nilai sedang dan rendah pada tingkat tumbuhan bawah, sementara indeks similaritas mayoritas kombinasi PU adalah rendah. Hasil kluster menunjukan terbentuknya dua subset pada kedua tingkat pertumbuhan, dimana PU VI berada di luar kluster sedangkan PCA menunjukan setiap PU mendukung jenis tumbuhan yang berbeda-beda. Hasil penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa komposisi vegetasi hutan Pilan mendekati klimaks yang disebabkan karena statusnya sebagai hutan keramat sehingga relatif bebas dari gangguan. Faktor-faktor yang diduga mempengaruhi perbedaan komposisi tumbuhan di setiap PU adalah pH tanah, intensitas sinar matahari, jenis pohon yang dominan, efek tepi, dan persebaran bijioleh hewan.


Quantitative Ecological Study of Pilan Forest as a Baseline for Development of Gianyar Botanic Garden

Abstract
Quantitative ecological research is needed as a baseline in the future construction and development of botanic gardens. This study aims to acquired the vegetation data in the forest area where a botanic garden will be established and analyse it quantitatively. The study was conducted using the quadrat plot (PU) method, with a plot measuring 20 m x 20 m for observation and tagging of all trees and saplings, as well as 2 mx2 m for observation of the understorey level. Data analysis was performed by utilising the importance value index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, similarity index, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant communities in Pilan Forest were dominated by Magnolia montana(Blume) Figlar and Arenga pinnata(Wurmb) Merr. at the canopy level and Daemonorops sp. in the understorey level. The diversity index was moderate and low respectively, while the similarity index was mostly low. The clustering results showed the formation of two subsets in both growth rate as the PU VI was outside the cluster and the PCA indicated that each plot supports different plant species. The study results concluded that the composition of vegetation at Pilan forest is approaching the maximum diversity, and is relatively undisturbed due to its status as a sacred forest. Factors thought to affect the different composition of plants in each plot was the pH of the soil, the intensity of sunlight, dominant tree species, edge effects and distribution of seeds by animals.

Keywords


Bali; botanic garden; plant composition; vegetation analysis; Magnolia montana

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.40147

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