Pengaruh Beberapa Karakteristik Kimia dan Fisika Tanah pada Pertumbuhan 30 Famili Uji Keturunan Jati (Tectona grandis) Umur 10 Tahun

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.34109

Daryono Prehaten(1*), Sapto Indrioko(2), Suryo Hardiwinoto(3), Mohammad Na'iem(4), Haryono Supriyo(5)

(1) Departement of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Departement of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Departement of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Departement of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(5) Departement of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Pertumbuhan tanaman dipengaruhi oleh faktor genetik dan faktor lingkungan. Salah satu faktor lingkungan yang sangat memengaruhi pertumbuhan adalah sifat kimia dan fisika tanah. Beberapa famili jati yang ditanam pada lokasi yang berbeda diduga mempunyai respon pertumbuhan yang berbeda pula. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon pertumbuhan (tinggi dan diameter) tanaman jati dari 30 famili yang ditanam pada dua lokasi yang berbeda, secara khusus untuk mengetahui pengaruh karakteristik sifat kimia dan fisika tanah pada pertumbuhan jati di dua lokasi tersebut. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan untuk mengukur pertumbuhan 30 famili jati yaitu tinggi total tanaman dan diameter setinggi dada. Sampel tanah diambil dengan terlebih dahulu membuat lubang profil tanah berukuran 1 m × 1 m dengan kedalaman 1 meter kemudian sampel diambil dari kedalaman 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm, dan 40-60 cm. Sifat kimia yang diamati adalah pH H2O, C Organik, N total, P, K, Ca, dan Mg tersedia serta Kapasitas Pertukaran Kation (KPK), sedangkan sifat fisik yang diukur adalah tekstur. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan melakukan uji-t. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan parameter diameter tanaman, semua (30) famili tanaman jati menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata di antara dua lokasi, sedangkan parameter tinggi hanya sebagian kecil famili yang berbeda nyata. Karakter kimia dan fisik tanah juga menunjukkan perbedaan nyata di antara dua lokasi. Parameter kimia tanah yaitu pH H2O, K, Ca, dan Mg tersedia, berbeda nyata antara 2 lokasi sedangkan kandungan C Organik, P tersedia dan KPK tidak berbeda nyata. Sementara dari sifat fisiknya, kandungan lempung dan debu pada dua lokasi berbeda nyata, sedangkan kandungan pasirnya tidak berbeda secara nyata. Perbedaan-perbedaan tersebut menunjukkan beberapa sifat tanah memang memengaruhi respon tanaman jati dalam hal pertumbuhan baik tinggi maupun diameternya.

 

The Effect of Soil Chemical and Physical Characteristics on Growth of 30 Families of Teak (Tectona grandis) in a 10-year-old Progeny Test

Abstract

Some environmental factors that greatly affect plant growth are soil’s physical and chemical properties. Some teak families planted at different locations alleged to have different growth responses. This study aimed to investigate the growth response of teak (height and diameter) from 30 families, and to determine the effect of soil chemical and physical characteristics on teak growth in two different locations. Teaks were measured for total height and diameter at breast height. Soil pits (size: 1 m x 1 m and 1 m in depth) were dug and samples were taken from 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm in depth. Soil characteristics measurement were conducted on pH (H2O), organic carbon, total Nitrogen, available P, K, Ca, and Mg, also the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). Further, soil physical properties been measured was soil texture. Statistical analysis was performed by t- test. The results showed that teak’s diameter of all 30 families, showed significant differences between the two locations, while only a small proportion of height parameters significantly differed among families. Chemical and physical characters of the soil also showed differences between the two locations. Soil pH (H2O), available K, Ca, and Mg, were significantly differed between the two locations while the content of organic C, available P and the CEC were not significantly differed. For the soil physical properties, content of clay and silt in two location significantly differed whereas the sand content did not differ significantly. These differences indicate that some properties of the soil were affecting the growth response of teak famili in terms of both height and diameter.


Keywords


progeny test; soil chemistry; soil physics; teak; tree-growth

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.34109

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