Hidrolisis Media Sisa Budidaya Jamur Kuping Menggunakan Tiga Jenis Enzim Selulase

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.24900

Denny Irawati(1*),

(1) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No.1, Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Jamur kuping (Auricularia polytricha) termasuk dalam kelas Basidiomycetes yang banyak dibudidayakan di Indonesia. Setelah 6-8 bulan masa pembudidayaan media budidaya jamur kuping harus diperbaharui. Sejauh ini media sisa budidaya jamur kuping belum dimanfaatkan dengan baik, bahkan limbah tersebut hanya dibuang begitu saja sebagai limbah. Hal ini sangat berbahaya karena sisa miselia yang terdapat di dalam media sisa dapat mendegradasi lebih lanjut media dan mengakibatkan pencemaran lingkungan yaitu terlepasnya gas metana ke udara. Oleh karena itu pemanfaatan sisa media budidaya kuping perlu dilakukan antara lain untuk memproduksi gula pereduksi dengan menggunakan berbagai jenis enzim selulase. Penelitian ini menggunakan media sisa budidaya jamur kuping yang berasal dari 3 jenis kayu, yaitu sengon (Falcataria moluccana), jati (Tectona grandis), dan meranti (Shorea sp.), yang dihidrolisis menggunakan 3 jenis enzim selulase yaitu Driselase, Cellulase “Onozuka” R-10, dan Meicelase. Setelah hidrolisis, kemudian diukur laju hidrolisisnya dan dianalisis kadar gula pereduksinya. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan aras 3 x 3 serta ulangan sebanyak 3 untuk setiap perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa media sisa budidaya jamur kuping memiliki potensi sebagai bahan baku gula pereduksi yang selanjutnya dapat difermentasi menjadi bio-etanol atau bahan kimia lainnya. Laju hidrolisis berkisar antara 1,43-21,29%, dengan kombinasi tertinggi yaitu media sisa budidaya yang terbuat dari serbuk kayu meranti dengan menggunakan enzim Meicelase. Kadar dan rendemen gula pereduksi tertinggi juga dihasilkan dari kombinasi perlakuan yang sama, yaitu berturut-turut sebesar 127,7 mg/g dan 12,8% dengan kisaran hasil antara 56,01-127,7 mg/g atau rendemen 5,6-12,8%.


The Hydrolysis of Ear-Mushroom Cultivation Media Residue by Using Three Kinds of Cellulase Enzymes

Abstract

Ear mushrooms (Auricularia polytricha) belongs to class Basidiomycetes is widely cultivated in Indonesia. After 6-8 months of cultivation, the media should be renewed. Therefore, the rest of the media is under utilized and just thrown away as a waste. This is dangerous because the residual mycelia that contained in the rest of the media may further degrade the media. This pollutes the environmental pollution due to discharge of methane into the air. Therefore, the utilization of residual ear mushroom media needs to be processed. In fact, this residue can produce a reducing-sugar using various commercial cellulase enzymes. This study used the residual media of the cultivation of mushroom derived from three types of wood, i.e. sengon (Falcataria moluccana), teak (Tectona grandis), and meranti (Shorea sp.), and then they were hydrolyzed using three types of cellulase enzymes, i.e. Driselase, Cellulase “Onozuka” R-10, and Meicelase. The hydrolysis rate was measured and the reducing-sugar yield was analyzed. The design used was completely randomized design with 3 x 3 factors and 3 replications for each treatment. The results showed that the residue of the mushroom cultivation media has the potential of reducing sugar as a raw material which can then be fermented into bio-ethanol or other chemicals. Hydrolysis rate ranged from 1.43 to 21.29%. The highest combination of residual cultivation medium was made from meranti sawdust by using Meicelase enzyme. The highest reducing sugar content yield were also resulted from the combination of the same treatment, which amounted to 127.7 mg/g or 12.8% with output range between 56.0 and 127.7 mg/g (or yield 5.6-12.8%).


Keywords


cellulase; ear mushroom; hydrolysis; media residue; reducing sugar

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.24900

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