Kualitas Papan Partikel dari Pelepah Nipah dengan Perekat Asam Sitrat dan Sukrosa

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.16514

Mahdi Santoso(1*), Ragil Widyorini(2), Tibertus Agus Prayitno(3), Joko Sulistyo(4)

(1) 1Jurusan Kehutanan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Palangka Raya Jl. Yos Sudarso, Palangka Raya 73112
(2) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(3) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(4) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penggunaan perekat alami dan bahan baku non kayu dalam pembuatan papan partikel masih sangat terbatas. Sukrosa dan asam sitrat adalah dua bahan alami yang potensial sebagai perekat alami pengganti perekat sintetik berbasis formaldehida. Nipah (Nypa fruticans Wurmb.) merupakan bahan non kayu yang potensial dijadikan alternatif bahan baku papan partikel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas papan partikel pelepah nipah yang direkat dengan sukrosa/asam sitrat (100/0, 87,5/12,5 dan 75/25). Papan partikel yang dibuat berukuran 25 cm × 25 cm × 1 cm, target kerapatan 0,8 g/cm3. Variabel perekatan antara lain jumlah perekat 20%, waktu kempa 10 menit, suhu kempa 180°C dan tekanan spesifik 3,6 MPa. Sifat fisika dan mekanika papan partikel diuji berdasarkan standar JIS A 5908:2003, kekasaran permukaan diukur menggunakan metode yang dilakukan oleh Hiziroglu (1996). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan asam sitrat terhadap sukrosa berpengaruh positif terhadap sebagian besar sifat papan partikel pelepah nipah. Papan partikel pelepah nipah dengan perekat sukrosa/asam sitrat 87,5/12,5 mampu memberikan hasil terbaik dengan memenuhi standar JIS A 5908:2003. Karakteristik papan partikel tersebut adalah kerapatan 0,89 g/cm3, kadar air 10,21%, pengembangan tebal 2,45%, penyerapan air 23,55%, kekasaran permukaan 5,13 μm, keteguhan rekat internal 0,39 MPa, keteguhan patah 9,80 MPa dan keteguhan elastisitas 3,19 GPa.

Kata kunci: papan partikel, pelepah nipah, perekat alami, sukrosa, asam sitrat

 

Quality of the Nipa Frond Particleboard Bonded with Citric acid and Sucrose

Abstract

Utilization of natural binder for non-wood composite is still limited. Sucrose and citric acid are potential natural binding agents for composite products. Nipa (Nypa fruticans Wurmb.) was non-wood materials which are potentially to be used as an alternative raw material for particleboards. This study aimed to determine the quality of the nipa frond particleboard bonded with sucrose/citric acid (100/0, 87.5/12.5 and 75/25). Particleboards were manufactured in 25 cm × 25 cm × 1 cm dimension, the target of density 0.8 g/cm3. The variables included resin content of 20%, press time of 10 m, pressing temperature of 180°C and specific pressure of 3.6 MPa. The physics and mechanics properties of particleboard were tested in accordance to standard JIS A 5908:2003 and surface roughness was measured by following the method performed by Hiziroglu (1996). The results showed that the addition of citric acid to sucrose give a positive effect on most of the properties of the nipa frond particleboards. The particleboard bonded with sucrose/citric acid 87.5/12.5 was able to provide the best results to meet the standards of JIS A 5908: 2003. Characteristics of the particleboard was a density of 0.89 g/cm, moisture content of 10.21%, thickness swelling of 2.45%, water absorption of 23.55%, surface roughness of 5.13 ìm, internal bonding of 0.39 MPa, modulus of rupture of 9.80 MPa and modulus of elasticity of 3.19 GPa.


Keywords


particleboard; nipa frond; natural binder, sucrose; citric acid

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.16514

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