Studi Mutu Kayu Jati di Hutan Rakyat Gunungkidul. V. Sifat Kimia Kayu

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.16511

Ganis Lukmandaru(1*), Arsyi Rahman Mohammad(2), Pito Wargono(3), Vendy Eko Prasetyo(4)

(1) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(2) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(3) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(4) Departemen Teknologi Hasil Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi sifat kimia kayu jati dari hutan rakyat Kabupaten Gunungkidul. Pohon (dbh 28-37 cm) diambil dari tempat tumbuh berbeda yaitu Nglipar, Panggang, dan Playen. Setiap tempat diambil 3 pohon sebagai ulangan dan sampel yang digunakan adalah disk yang diambil dari bagian pangkal. Penampang radial disk dibagi menjadi 3 bagian, yaitu gubal, teras luar, dan teras dalam. Sifat kimia yang diuji adalah kadar holoselulosa, á-selulosa, hemiselulosa, lignin, ekstraktif etanol-toluena, kelarutan dalam air panas, kelarutan dalam NaOH 1%, dan abu. Sebagai pembanding, digunakan kayu jati dewasa dari tegakan Randublatung (Perhutani). Kisaran nilai kimia dari komponen dinding sel kayu jati Gunungkidul adalah kadar holoselulosa 75,76-79,74%, á-selulosa 46,72-50,90%, hemiselulosa 27,41-30,14%, lignin 29,22-32,80%, dan kelarutan dalam NaOH 1% sebesar 16,43-17,35%. Selanjutnya, kadar ekstraktif etanol-toluena, kelarutan dalam air panas, dan abu adalah 5,04-10,77%, 2,74-7,85%, dan 0,60-1,66%, secara berurutan. Interaksi antara kedua faktor berpengaruh nyata pada kadar holoselulosa, á-selulosa, hemiselulosa, dan ekstraktif etanol-toluena. Faktor tempat tumbuh berpengaruh nyata pada kadar abu sedangkan faktor radial berpengaruh nyata pada kadar kelarutan dalam air panas dan abu. Kayu jati dari Gunungkidul memberikan nilai rerata kadar ekstraktif etanol-toluena dan abu yang lebih rendah sedangkan nilai di parameter lainnya masih dalam kisaran nilai kayu jati dari Randublatung.

Kata kunci: Tectona grandis, sifat kimia, hutan rakyat, arah radial, Gunungkidul

 

A Study of Teak Wood Quality from Community Forests in Gunungkidul. V.Wood Chemical Properties

Abstract

This study aimed to explore the chemical properties of teak wood grown in community forests from Gunungkidul Regency. Trees (dbh 28-37 cm) were selected from three different sites i.e. Nglipar, Panggang, and Playen. Three trees were cut from each site and disks were taken from the base of the trees. The disk in radial cross section was divided into 3 parts: sapwood, outer heartwood, and inner heartwood. Chemical properties tested were holocellulose, á-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, ethanol-toluene extractives, hot-water soluble extractives, solubility in NaOH 1%, and ash contents. Mature teakwoods from Randublatung (Perhutani plantation) were used for comparison purpose.The values range of chemical composition in the cell wall components of the Gunungkidul teak wood were holocellulose content 75.76-79.74%, , á-cellulose content 46.72-50.90%, hemicellulose content 27.41-30.14%, lignin content 29.22-32.80%, and solubility in NaOH 1% 16.43-17.35%. Further, the ethanol-toluene extractive, hot-water soluble, and ash content values ranged from 5.04 to 10.77%, 2.74-7.85%, and 0.60-1.66%, consecutively. Interaction between two factors affects significantly to holocellulose, á-cellulose, hemicellulose, and ethanol-toluene extractive contents. The growth-site significantly influence on the ash contents as radial factor has significantly affect on the levels of hot water soluble extractives and ash content. The amounts of ethanol-toluene extractive and ash contents of Gunungkidul teak wood showed the lower values than those of teak from Randublatung. The values of other parameters were remain in the range of value of teak from Randublatung. 


Keywords


Tectona grandis; chemical properties; community forest; radial direction; Gunungkidul

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.16511

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