Pemodelan Spasial Resiliensi Ekosistem Gunungapi Merapi Pasca Erupsi

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.16509

Emma Soraya(1*), Wahyu Wardhana(2), Ronggo Sadono(3)

(1) Departemen Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(2) Departemen Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(3) Departemen Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kemampuan ekosistem hutan di wilayah gunungapi pasca erupsi dapat kembali berfungsi seperti sebelumnya sangat dipengaruhi oleh resiliensi atau daya lentur/lembam ekosistem tersebut. Resiliensi suatu ekosistem dalam studi ini didefinisikan sebagai kemampuan ekosistem untuk bangkit kembali setelah guncangan/gangguan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memodelkan sebaran resiliensi spasial ekosistem hutan di kawasan Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi (TNGM) lima tahun pasca erupsi dan intervensi restorasi. Analisis dilakukan dengan pendekatan penginderaan jauh multi temporal dan analisis spasial menggunakan sistem informasi geografis untuk menggambarkan perubahan kondisi ekosistem gunungapi sebelum dan pasca erupsi dan kegiatan restorasi. Hasil pemodelan menunjukkan bahwa setelah lima tahun pasca erupsi, telah terjadi transisi resiliensi/perbaikan ekosistem dari lahan terbuka ke lahan dengan tutupan vegetasi berupa rumput, semak belukar, dan hutan sekunder. Transisi resiliensi ini terjadi baik secara suksesi alami maupun campur tangan manusia dalam bentuk tindakan restorasi. Salah satu catatan hasil dari penelitian ini antara lain adalah keberhasilan kegiatan restorasi untuk mengembalikan kondisi ekosistem seperti sebelum erupsi tidak selalu dapat dideteksi dalam jangka lima tahun setelah erupsi.

 

Kata kunci: Gunungapi Merapi; multi temporal; penginderaan jauh; resiliensi spasial; sistem informasi geografis

 

Spatial Resilience Modelling of Merapi Volcano Ecosystem Post-Eruption

The ability of volcano ecosystem to recover post an eruption to the pre eruption status is affected by its ecological resilience. Resilience of an ecosystem can be defined as the ability of an ecosystem to bounch back after (a) disturbance(s). This study aimed to model spatial resilience of Merapi volcano ecosystem within the area of National Park of Merapi Volcano (TNGM) five years post 2010 eruption and restoration intervention. Analysis was conducted using multi temporal remote sensing and spatial analysis using geographic information system to draw the changes of the ecosystem over time, particularly post eruption and restoration actions. The modelling resulted that five years post eruption, there was resilience transisition/ recovery in volcano ecosystem in TNGM post 2010 eruption. The resilience was shown by the changes from open area to vegetation covers as grass, shrubs, and secondary forests. The transitions occured in term of natural succession as well as human intervention in restoration programs. However, the success of restoration actions to recover the ecosystem to the pre eruption status was not always able to be detected within the period of five years post eruption.


Keywords


spatial resilience; Merapi Volcano; remote sensing; multi temporal; geographic information system

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.16509

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