Pengelompokan Keruing (Dipterocarpus spp.) di Indonesia Menurut Karakter Buah

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.12629

Dwi Tyaningsih Adriyanti(1*), Soekotjo Soekotjo(2), Mochammad Na'iem(3), Anto Rimbawanto(4)

(1) Departemen Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No. 1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(2) Departemen Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No. 1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(3) Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Jl. Palagan Tentara Pelajar KM. 15, Sleman 55582
(4) Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Jl. Palagan Tentara Pelajar KM. 15, Sleman 55582
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Status taksonomi Famili Dipterocarpaceae telah mengalami beberapa kali perubahan. Menurut tinjauan klasifikasi yang disusun oleh Heim, Symington, Meijer, Maury, dan Ashton bahwa Dipterocarpus memiliki hubungan yang cukup dekat dengan Anisoptera sehingga dalam beberapa klasifikasi digambarkan dengan menuliskan keduanya dalam satu kelompok. Namun, Heim memiliki pandangan yang berbeda dengan 4 ahli yang lain yaitu membagi genus Dipterocarpus menjadi 5 seksi yaitu sphaerales, angulati, plicati, alati, dan tuberculati. Penggolongan yang dilakukan oleh Heim atas Dipterocarpus ternyata didukung dengan keterangan yang dikemukakan oleh Symington bahwa ke-5 seksi dapat dideteksi dari kelopak buah yang membentuk tabung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kedudukan seksi dalam genus Dipterocarpus ditinjau dari karakter buahnya. Materi sebanyak 38 spesies Dipterocarpus dan 3 Anisoptera dikoleksi dari sebaran alaminya kemudian diidentifikasi menggunakan prosedur standar dan hasilnya ditabulasikan dalam bentuk matrik. Terdapat 48 karakter meliputi seluruh organ, namun yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini dibatasi pada 9 karakter khusus pada organ buah. Analisis dilakukan secara statistik dengan software NCSS seri 10 untuk mendapatkan dendrogram yang akan menggambarkan hubungan kedekatan antar spesies. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa kedudukan seksi dalam Dipterocarpus dapat dibuktikan secara nyata melalui karakter morfologinya. Dengan memanfaatkan Anisoptera sebagai outgroup, diketahui bahwa Dipterocarpus dari seksi sphaerales paling dekat dengan Anisoptera, kemudian diikuti oleh tuberculati, angulati, alati, dan plicati.

Kata kunci: pengelompokan, Dipterocarpus, seksi, karakteristik, buah

 

Classification of Keruing (Dipterocarpus spp.) in Indonesia on the Basis of Fruit Characters

Abstract

The taxonomy status of Dipterocarpaceae family has been changed for several times. According to the review of classification compiled by Heim, Symington, Meijer, Maury and Ashton, the genus Dipterocarpus had quite close relations with Anisoptera, therefore, in some classifications they were described by writing in a group. However, Heim had a different point of view from four other experts as he divided the genus Dipterocarpus into 5 sections: sphaerales, tuberculati, angulati, alati and plicati, The classification done by Heim on Dipterocarpus were supported by Symington that the 5 sections could be detected from the fruit petals forming a tube. This study aimed to determine the position of the species in the genus of Dipterocarpus in terms of fruit characters. There were 38 species of Dipterocarpus and 3 species of Anisoptera used in the research which were collected from the natural distribution and then were identified using standard procedures, and the results were tabulated in a matrix. There were 48 characters from the entire organ, but only 9 fruit characters used in this research. Statistical analysis was done with NCSS software series 10 to build a dendrogram and to draw the hierarchical of relations between species. The results showed that the position of section in Dipterocarpus was significantly provable through morphological characters. By utilizing Anisoptera as an outgroup, it was known that Dipterocarpus of sphaerales section was closest to the Anisoptera, followed by tuberculati, angulati, alati and plicati.


Keywords


clustering; Dipterocarpus; section; characteristics; fruits

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.12629

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