Pengaruh Cekaman Kekeringan terhadap Perilaku Fisiologis dan Pertumbuhan Bibit Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.10183

Novita Anggraini(1*), Eny Faridah(2), Sapto Indrioko(3)

(1) Bagian Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No.1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(2) Bagian Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No.1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(3) Bagian Silvikultur, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jl. Agro No.1 Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) merupakan tanaman asli Amerika Utara dan telah tersebar ke Eropa dan Asia serta menjadi salah satu spesies yang digunakan untuk rehabilitasi lahan semiarid dan arid. Walau demikian, kemampuan adaptasi black locust pada daerah persebarannya cukup meresahkan disebabkan jenis ini memiliki potensi invasif yang cenderung menekan pertumbuhan tanaman asli setempat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari pengaruh cekaman kekeringan berupa volume penyiraman dan interval penyiraman terhadap perilaku fisiologis dan pertumbuhan bibit black locust, serta untuk menganalisis tingkat toleransi black locust terhadap kekeringan melalui karakter efisiensi penggunaan air (WUE) dan kandungan klorofil. Perlakuan volume penyiraman berupa kapasitas lapang 30-40 % mewakili kondisi kekeringan dan kapasitas lapang 70-80 % mewakili kondisi air yang memadai, sementara periode interval penyiraman adalah 1 hari, 3 hari dan 7 hari. Metode analisis yang digunakan ialah analisis tren. Hasil yang diperoleh pada penelitian ini adalah semakin rendah volume penyiraman (KL 30-40 %) dan semakin lama interval penyiraman (ke 7 hari) maka fotosintesis, transpirasi, konduktansi stomata, serta pertumbuhan (tinggi, diameter, berat kering tajuk dan akar) akan semakin rendah, sementara untuk WUE dan kandungan klorofil semakin tinggi. Peningkatan WUE dan kandungan klorofil merupakan dua indikator bahwa black locust mampu beradaptasi (toleran) pada kondisi cekaman kekeringan. Dengan begitu, dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan black locust dalam upaya reklamasi lahan kering perlu didahului studi khusus dan pertimbangan yang matang agar tidak membawa dampak invasif pada kehidupan mendatang.

Kata kunci: black locust, cekaman kekeringan, jenis invasif, water use efficiency, kandungan klorofil.

 

Effect of drought stress on physiological behavior and growth ofblack locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) seedlings

Abstract

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) is a native species from North America and it has spread to Europe and Asia. Black locust is also one species used for land rehabilitation in semiarid and arid areas. However, adaptability of black locust on their distribution area is quite disturbing due to its invasive potential that tends to suppress the growth of native plants. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of drought stress through watering volume and watering intervals treatments on physiological behavior and growth of black locust seedlings, and to analyze the level of black locust on drought tolerance through water use efficiency (WUE) character and chlorophyll content. The watering volumes are 30-40 % of field capacity representing drought conditions and 70-80 % of field capacity representing good water conditions, while the watering intervals are 1, 3 and 7 days. Trend analysis is used to analyze the data. The results indicate that the lower watering volume (30-40 %) and the longer the watering interval (for 7 days), the lower the photosynthesis and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and growth (height, diameter, shoot dry weight and root) of plants, but the higher the WUE and chlorophyll content. Increasing WUE and chlorophyll content are two indicators indicating that black locust is able to adapt (tolerant) to drought stress situations. Therefore, the use of black locust for dry land reclamation requires special attention and careful strategy to avoid its invasive impact in the future.


Keywords


black locust; drought; invasive species; water use efficiency; chlorophyll content

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.10183

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