Diah Retno Wulandari(1*)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


The main purpose of this study was to explore empowerment perspectives in Indonesian culture. In particular, it explores which components of empowerment are prevalent and the most important in three Indonesian Universities in Yogyakarta. Data from sixty three academic and administrative staff were collected from surveys and interviews. Five components of empowerment frequently cited in the literature were focused on: authority or control, competence, resources, self efficacy and teamwork. Four dimensions of Hofstede, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity, and collectivism-individualism were used to understand how Indonesian culture influences the practices of empowerment in Indonesian organizations. The results of this study revealed that all components of empowerment are perceived as quite prevalent and amongst the most important for Indonesians. However, the type of job carried out by staff members and their position or level in the organizations influenced the degree of empowerment. It was also interesting to note that some findings contradicted with expectations derived from Hofstede’s four dimensions. Authority was perceived as amongst the most important component despite Indonesia’s high power distance in which power is unequal among team members.

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