Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink sebagai faktor risiko obesitas pada remaja

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.23311

Ayu Rafiony(1*), Martalena Br Purba(2), I Dewa Putu Pramantara(3)

(1) Jurusan Gizi Politeknik Kesehatan Kementrian Kesehatan Pontianak
(2) Instalasi Gizi Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Sardjito
(3) Bagian Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Sardjito
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Recently, obesity has become health problem which was frequently associated with an increased occurrence of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity was marked by a shift in eating pattern composition containing high fat, cholesterol, but low in fiber such as consumption of fast food and soft drinks. The imbalance of nutrient intake was one of the risk factors for the emergence of obesity in adolescents. Obesity in adolescents at risk of becoming obese in adulthood and potentially can lead to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases

Objective: This study aimed to find out the prevalence of obesity and to investigate risk factors for energy intake and frequency of consumption of fast food and soft drinks on the incidence of obesity in high school students in Pontianak.

Method: This research was an observational study which involves case-control design. The samples in this study are 160 students consisting of 80 obese high school teenagers and 80 non-obese high school teenagers. The choice for a subject of research used proportional stratified random sampling. Measurement of obesity status subject was taken by the measurement of weight and height based on the reference standard WHO / NCHS. It also involves data intake of fast food and soft drinks based on interviews with SQFFQ. Data were analyzed by chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression.

Results: The prevalence of obesity in high school teenagers in Pontianak was 9.29%. The bivariate test result showed no association  between total  energy intake of fast food and obesity (p<0.05; OR=2.27; 95% CI: 1.12-4.64). The relationship between the consumption of modern energy intake of fast food, fast food and soft drink with the local obesity was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was a relationship between the frequency of total  fast food and of the local fast food consumption with obesity (p<0.05; OR=2.03; 95% CI: 1.03-4.00), (p<0.05; OR=2.63; 95% CI: 1.33-5.25). The relationship between the frequency of fast food consumption in total modern fast food and soft drinks and obesity was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Multivariable analysis showed that the total energy intake was the most dominant factor to the onset of obesity (p<0.05; OR=5.27; 95% CI: 1.64-16.97).

Conclusion: Consumption of fast food was a risk factor for obesity in high school teenagers in Pontianak. On the other hand,  soft drink consumption did not become the risk factor for obesity in teens high school in Pontianak.


Keywords


fast food; obesity; soft drink

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. Bener A. Prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in Qatari adolescents. Food Nutr Bull 2006;27(1):39-46.
  2. Weisell CR. Body mass index as an indicator of obesity Asia Pacific. J Clin Nutr 2002;11(Suppl): S681–4.
  3. WHO. Obesity: Situation and Trends. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008.
  4. Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. The burden of overweight and obesity in the Asia–Pacific region. Obes Rev 2007;8(3):191-6.
  5. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-55.
  6. Janssen I., Katzmarzyk PT, Boyce WF, King MA, Pickett W. Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary habits and physical activity patterns. J Adolesc Health 2004;35:360–367.
  7. Nicklas TA, Demory-Luce D, Yang SJ, Baranowski T, Zakeri I, Berenson G. Children’s food consumption patterns have changed over two decades (1973–1994): The Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104:1127–40.
  8. French SA, Story M, Neumark-Stainer D, Fulkerson JA, Hannan P. Fast food restaurant use among dolescents: Assosiation with nutrient intake, food choice and behavorial and psychososial variables. Int J of Obes 2001;25:1323-33.
  9. IPAQ. Guidelines For Data Processing and Analysis of The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) Short and Long Forms; 2005.
  10. Suhendro. Fast food sebagai faktor risiko terjadinya obesitas pada remaja siswa-siswi SMA di Kota Tangerang Propinsi Banten [Tesis]. Yogyakarta: UGM; 2003.
  11. Lobstein T, Baur L, Uuay R. IASO - International Obesity Taskforce Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev 2004;4:104.
  12. WHO. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2000.
  13. Keast, Nicklas, O’Neil. Snacking is Associated With Reduced Risk of Overweight and Reduced Abdominal Obesity in Adolescence: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:428-35.
  14. Mahdiah, Hadi H, Pramantara IDP. Prevalensi obesitas dan konsumsi fast food sebagai faktor resiko terjadinya obesitas pada anak SD di Kota Denpasar, Propinsi Bali. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia 2004;1(2):61-8.
  15. Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Pereira MA, Ludwig DS. Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics 2004;113(1):112-8.
  16. Castillon PG, Artalejo FR, Fomes ND, Banegas JR, Exezretta PA, Chirlaque MD. Intake of fried food is associated with obesity in the cohort of Spanish adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:198-205.
  17. Troinano RP, Breifel RR, Carol MD, Jhonson CL. Energy and fat intake of children adolescent in the United States. Data From The National Health and Nutrition Examinations Survey. Am. J Clin Nutr 2000;72(13):43S-54S
  18. Bleich SH, Wang YC, Wang Y, Gortmaker SL. Increasing consumption of sugar sweeted beverage among US adults 1988-1994 to 1999-2004. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:372-81.
  19. Pereira MA, Kartashov AI, Ebbeling CB, Van Horn L, Slattery ML, Jacobs DR, Ludwig DS. Fast food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance. The Lancet 2005;365:36-42.
  20. Onge MPS, Keller KI, Heymsfield SB. Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(6):1068-73.
  21. Muwakhidah, Tri DH. Faktor risiko yang berhubungan dengan obesitas pada remaja. Jurnal Kesehatan 2008;1(2):133-40.
  22. Jacobs RD. Fast food and sedentary life: combination that leads to obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2006:189-90.
  23. Mahdiah, Hadi H, Susetyowati. Prevalensi Obesitas dan hubungan Konsumsi Fast Food dengan Kejadian Obesitas pada Remaja SLTP Kota dan Desa di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia 2004;1(2):77-85.
  24. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. Relation between consumption of sugar sweetened drinks and chilhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 2001;357(9255):505-8.
  25. Briawan D, Hardinsyah, Marhamah, Zulaikhah, Arie M. Konsumsi minuman dan preferensinya pada remaja di Jakarta dan Bandung. Gizi Indon 2011;34(1):43-51.
  26. Francis KD,  Broeck VD, Younger N, Mc-Farlene S, Rudder K, Strachan G, Grant A, Johnson A, Reid M, Wilks R. Fast food and sweetened beverge consumption: association with overweight and high waist circumference in adolescents. Public Health Nutr 2009;12(08):1106-14.
  27. Collison KS, Zaidi M, Subhani SN, Al-Rubean K, Shoukri M, Al-Mohanna FA. Sugar sweetened carbonated beverage consumption corrales with BMI, waist circumference and poor dietary choices in school children. BMC Public Health 2010;10:234-47.
  28. Martin JE, Roe L, Ledwike HJ, Beach A, Rolls BR. Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity; a year long comparing 2 weight lost diet. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:1465-77
  29. Pampang E, Purba M, Huriyati E. Asupan energi, aktivitas fisik, persepsi orang tua, dan  obesitas siswa SMP di Kota Yogyakarta. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia 2009;5(3):108-13.
  30. Patrick K, Norman GJ, Calfas KJ, Sallis JF, Zabinski MF, Rupp J, Cella J. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for overweight in adolescence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(4):385-90.
  31. Fukuda S, Takeshita T, Morimoto K. Obesity and Lifestyle. Asian Med J 2001;44:123-28.
  32. Bourdeaudhuij ID, Lefevre J, Deforche B, Wijndaele K, Matton L, Philippaerts R. Physical activity and psychosocial correlates in normal weight and overweight 11 to 19 year olds. Obes Res 2005;13(6):1097-105.
  33. Li M, Dibley MJ, Sibbritt D, Yan H. Factors associated with adolescents’ overweight and obesity at community, school and household levels in Xi’an City, China: results of hierarchical analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 2008;62:635–43.
  34. Jensen JD, Elling Bere E, Bourdeaudhuij ID, Jan N, Maes L, Manios YL. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in children’s energy balance related behaviours: findings from the energy European cross-section questionnaire survey. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2012;9(136);1-12.
  35. Podojoyo, Hadi H, Huriyati E. Pola konsumsi makanan di luar rumah sebagai faktor risiko obesitas pada remaja SMP di Kota Palembang. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia 2006;2(3):46-55.
  36. Medawati A, Hadi H, Pramantara IDP. Hubungan antara asupan energi, asupan lemak dengan obesitas pada remaja SLTP di Yogyakarta dan Bantul. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia 2005;1(3):119-29.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.23311

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3392 | views : 9311

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (JGKI) Indexed by:
 
 Crossref   Google Scholar Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia OneSearch (IOS)  CORE   

  Creative Commons License

JGKI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free
web stats View My Stats