Estimasi asupan indeks glikemik dan beban glikemik dengan kontrol gula darah pasien diabetes melitus tipe 2

Sinta Mukti Permatasari(1*), Toto Sudargo(2), Luthfan Budi Purnomo(3)

(1) Minat Utama Gizi dan Kesehatan, Prodi S2 Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Departemen Gizi Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr.Sardjito
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: Non-infectious disease (NID) has become a public health problem both globally, regionally, nasionally, and locally. One of NID that takes a lot of attention is diabetes mellitus (DM). Risk of complication is higher due to lack of attention to lifestyle including diet. The concept of the glycemic index classifies carbohydrate is considered better in controlling blood sugar. However, some studies say otherwise. Therefore, research needs to be done by combining carbohydrate quantity concept (glycemic load) and glycemic index

Objective: To identify the relationship between estimated dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with blood sugar control, as well as to identify other factors associated with glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Method: This is an observational study with cross-sectional design. The population study were all outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Dr.Sardjito hospital Yogyakarta in 2014. Sampling method using a consecutive sampling with sample size of 79 people. Interviews regarding the identity of the respondents through questionnaires, physical activity (IPAQ), and semi-quantitative food frequency (SQFFQ). Blood sugar control (HbA1C) obtained from respondent’s medical record. The data were processed using univariable analysis (descriptive), bivariate (chi-square), and multivariate (GLM)

Results: Most respondents were blood sugar uncontrolled (84,81%). Average of dietary GI and GL was 63,26±3,23 and 127,65±43,02. Bivariate test showed that the dietary GI and GL each has a RP value 1,023 and 1,002, and statistically significant (p<0,05) with HbA1C. The prevalence of uncontrolled blood sugar 4,18 times greater in respondents who doesn’t have appropriate eating schedule. Duration of diabetes, nutritional status, physical activity, and education level did not significantly influence HbA1C (p>0,05)

Conclusion: There is a relationship between dietary GI, GL, and eating schedule with blood sugar control (HbA1C), but there was no correlation between duration of diabetes, nutritional status, physical activity, and education level with blood sugar control (HbA1C)


dietary glycemic index; dietary glycemic load; type 2 diabetes mellitus

Full Text:



  1. International Diabetes Federation. Panduan global untuk diabetes melitus tipe 2. Brussels: IDF; 2005.
  2. [ADA] American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2010;33(Supplement 1):S11-S61
  3. Benoit SR, Fleming R, Philis-Tsimikas A, Ji Ming. Predictors of glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal study. BMC Public Health 2005;5:36.
  4. Marshall JA, Bessesen DH, Hamman RF, Denver CO. Dietary correlations of fasting insulin levels in non-diabetics. Boston: ADA; 1994.
  5. Liu S, Manson JE, Stamfer MJ, Hu FB, Giovannucci E, Willet WC, et al. A prospective study of whole-grain and risk of type 2 diabetes melitus in US women. Am J Public Health 2000;90(9):1409-15.
  6. Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs Jr DR, Slavin J, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(4):921-30.
  7. Colombani PC. Glycemic index and load-dynamic dietary guidelines in the context of diseases. Physiol Behav 2004;83(4):603-10.
  8. Powell KF, Holt Susanna HA, Miller JCB. International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:5–56.
  9. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, Irwin ML, Swartz AM, Leon AS, et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32(9 Suppl):S498-504.
  10. Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(1):274S-80S.
  11. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Blood glucose lowering therapy for type 2 diabetes. [series online] 2014 [cited 20 Juli 2013]. Available from: URL:
  12. Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, Okubo H, Hosoi Y, Kayama F, et al. Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to metabolic risk factors in Japanese female farmers with traditional dietary habits. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83(5):1161-9.
  13. Opperman AM, Venter CS, Oosthuizen W, Thompson RL, Vorster HH. Meta-analysis of the health effects of using the glycaemic index in meal-planning. Br J Nutr 2004;92(3):367-81.
  14. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes: prospective observational study. BMJ 2000;321(7258):405-12.
  15. Vrolix R, Mensink RP. Effects of glycemic load on metabolic risk markers in subjects at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Am J CLin Nutr 2010;92(2):366-74.
  16. Livesey G, Taylor R, Hulshof T, Howlett J. Glycemic response and health-a systematic review and meta-analysis: relations between dietary glycemic properties and health outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(1):258S-268S.
  17. Dewi RP. Faktor risiko perilaku yang berhubungan dengan kadar gula darah pada penderita diabetes melitus tipe 2 di RSUP Kabupaten Karanganyar. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat 2013;2(1).
  18. Rahmawati, Aminuddin S, Hidayati H. Pola makan dan aktivitas fisik dengan kadar glukosa darah penderita diabetes melitus tipe 2 rawat jalan di RSUP Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Makassar. Media Gizi Masyarakat Indonesia 2011;1(1):52-58.
  19. Adham M, Froelicher ES, Batieha A, Ajlouni K. Glycaemic control and its associated factors in type 2 diabetic patients in Amman, Jordan. East Mediterr Health J 2010;16(7):732-9.
  20. Verma M, Paneri S, Badi P, Raman. Effect of increasing duration of diabetes mellitus type 2 on glycated hemoglobin and insulin sensitivity. Indian J Clin Biochem 2006;21(1):142–146.
  21. Saydah SH, Fradkin J, Cowie CC. Poor control of risk factors for vascular disease among adults with previously diagnosed diabetes. JAMA 2004;291(3):335-42.
  22. Khattab M, Khader YS, Al-Khawaldeh A, Ajlouni K. Factors associated with poor glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications 2010;24(2):84-9.
  23. Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Javor K, Brown JB. Predictors of glycemic control in insulin-using adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23(3):273-7.
  24. Darmono. Pengaturan pola hidup penderita diabetes untuk mencegah komplikasi kerusakan organ-organ tubuh [Pidato Pengukuhan Guru Besar Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro]. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro; 2005.
  25. Song MK, Bae JW, Kim YH, Chung S. Hemoglobin A1C in the screening of obesity related disease in children and adolescents. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2012;17(2):92-99.
  26. Koga M, Matsumoto S, Saito H, Kasayama S. Body mass index negatively influences glycated albumin, but not glycated hemoglobin, in diabetic patients. Endocrine Journal 2006;53(3):387-391.
  27. Dalawa FN, Kepel B, Hamel R. Hubungan antara status gizi dengan kadar gula darah puasa pada masyarakat Kelurahan Bahu Kecamatan Malayang Manado. Ejournal Keperawatan 2013;1(1).
  28. Dunstan DW, Daly RM, Owen N, Jolley D, de Courten M, Zimmet P, et al. High-intensity resistance training improves glycemic control in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25(10):1729-36.
  29. Boule NG, Haddad E, Kenny GP, Wells GA, Sigal RJ. Effects of exercise on glycemic control and body mass in type 2 diabetes melitus: a meta analysis of controlled clinical trials. JAMA 2001;286(10):1218-27.
  30. Dunstan DW, Daly RM, Owen N, Jolley D, Vulikh E, Zimmet P, et al. Glycemic control following supervised training in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2005;28(1):3-9.
  31. Locke CT, Bell RC, Myers AM, Harris SB, Evvlestone NA, Rodger NW, et al. Controlled outcome evaluation of the first step program: a daily physical activity intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28(1):113-9.
  32. Bweir S, Al-Jarrah M, Almalty AM, Maayah M, Smirnova IV, Stehno-Bittel L, et al. Resistance exercise training lowers HbA1C more than aerobic training in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetol Metab Syndr 2009;1:27.
  33. Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia. Konsensus pengelolaan dan pencegahan diabetes melitus tipe 2 di Indonesia. Jakarta: PERKENI; 2011.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 6494 | views : 7689


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (JGKI) Indexed by:

web stats View My Stats