Sindrom metabolik pada remaja obes: prevalensi dan hubungannya dengan kualitas diet

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.22830

Fillah Fithra Dieny(1*), Nurmasari Widyastuti(2), Deny Yudi Fitranti(3)

(1) Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro
(2) Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro
(3) Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Diponegoro
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: The increasing prevalence of adolescents obesity in the last decade have an impact on the increased prevalence of adolescents metabolic syndrome (MetS). Diet quality is one of the determining factors in the incidence of adolescents obesity, so it can also be a factor for MetS.

Objective: To analyze the relationship between diet quality and MetS risk factors in obese adolescents.

Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the 57 obese students in 7th and 8th grades of Nasima and Kesatrian Junior High School in Semarang. Blood pressure (BP) and waist circumference (WC) measurements, as well as blood samples for measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), were conducted to determine the number of risk factors experienced by the subject. Diet quality was measured through assessment of food consumption using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Pearson and Spearman's test was used to determine the correlation between diet quality and MetS risk factors.

Results: The majority of obese adolescents (96.5%) had a low-quality of diet. There were 31.6% subjects experienced pre-metabolic syndrome and 68.4% had MetS, with the prevalence of MetS, was higher in male subjects. The diet quality, variety, adequacy scores and fiber intake of the pre-metabolic syndrome group were higher than MetS group. Variety and adequacy scores had significant negative correlation with TG (r = -0.374, p=0.004; r = -0.357, p=0.006, respectively). There was no significant relationship between diet quality score and the number of MetS risk factors (p=0.538), although they had a negative correlation (r = -0.083).

Conclusion: Prevalence of pre-metabolic syndrome and MetS was 31.6% and 68.4%. Though there was no significant relationship, diet quality had a negative correlation with the number of MetS risk factors. Variety and adequacy scores had a significant relationship with triglyceride levels.


Keywords


diet quality; metabolic syndrome; obese adolescents

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. Larsen PG, Adair LS, Popkin BM. The relationship of ethnicity,  socioeconomic and overweight in U.S. adolescents. Obes Res 2003;11:121-9.
  2. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Riset kesehatan dasar (Riskesdas 2013). Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2013.
  3. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Riset kesehatan dasar (Riskesdas 2010). Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2010.
  4. Duncan G, Li S, Xiao-hua Z. Prevalence and trends of a metabolic syndrome phenotype among U.S. adolescent, 1999-2000. Diabetes Care [series online] 2004 [cited 5 December 2014];27(10):2438-2443. Available online: URL: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/27/10/2438.full-text.pdf
  5. Cook S, Weitzman M, Auinger P, Nguyen M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003;157(8):821-7. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.157.8.821.
  6. Ryan D. Risk and benefits of weight loss: challenges to obesity research. Eur Heart J 2005; Supp7:L27-31.
  7. Ma Y, Bertone ER, Stanek EJ, Reed GW, Hebert JR, Ockene IS. Association between eating pattern and obesity in free living US adult population. Am J Epidemiol 2003;158:85-92.
  8. Daniels SR, Arnett DK, Eckel RH, Gidding SS. Overweight in children and adolescents, pathophysiology, consequence, prevention, and treatment. Circulation 2005;111:1999-2012.
  9. Suryaputra K, Nadhiroh SR. Perbedaan pola makan dan aktivitas fisik antara remaja obesitas dengan non obesitas. Makara Kesehatan 2012;16(1):45-50.
  10. Rosenheck R. Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk. Obes Rev 2008;9(6):535-47.
  11. Malik VS, Schulze MB, Hu FB. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:274-88.
  12. Wolongevicz DM, Zhu L, Pencina MJ, Kimokoti RW, Newby PK, Millen BE.  Diet quality and obesity in women: the Framingham Nutrition Studies. Br J Nutr 2010;103(8):1223-9.
  13. Family Nutrition Programs. Diet quality of Americans by food stamp participation status: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004. [series online] 2008 [cited 21 November 2014]. Available online: URL: https://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/NHANES-FSP.pdf
  14. Dewi UP. Hubungan antara densitas energi dan kualitas diet dengan indeks massa tubuh (IMT) pada remaja. Journal of Nutrition College 2013;2(4):447-57.
  15. Patterson E, Wärnberg J, Poortvliet E, Kearney JM, Sjöström M. Dietary energy density as a marker of dietary quality in Swedish children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010;64(4):356-63.
  16. Kementrian Kesehatan RI. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor: 1995/Menkes/SK/XII/2010 tentang Standar antropometri penilaian status gizi anak. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI Direktoral Jenderal Bina Gizi dan Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak; 2011.
  17. Kim S, Haines PS, Siega-Riz AM, Popkin BM. The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) provides an effective tool for cross-national comparison of diet quality as illustrated by China and the United States. J Nutr 2003;133(11):3476-84.
  18. Tur JA, Romaguera D, Pons A. The Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I): is it a useful tool to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet?. Br J Nutr 2005;93(3):369-76.
  19. Silveira LS, Buonani C, Monteiro PA, Moura Mello Antunes B, Junior IFF. Metabolic syndrome: criteria for diagnosing in children and adolescents. Endocrinol Metab Synd 2013;2(3):118. doi: 10.4172/2161-1017.1000118.
  20. Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 75 Tahun 2013 tentang Angka kecukupan gizi yang dianjurkan bagi bangsa Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan; 2013.
  21. Pan Y, Pratt CA. Metabolic syndrome and its association with diet and physical activity in US adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 2008;108:276-286. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2007.10.049.
  22. Bibiloni MM, Martinez E, Llull R, Maffiotte E, Riesco M, Tur JA. Metabolic syndrome in adolescents in the Balearic Island, a Mediterranean region. Elsevier: Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2009;21:446-454. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2009.11.008.
  23. Lee RD. Energy balance and body weight. In: Nelms M, Sucher KP, Lacey K, Roth SL. Nutrition therapy and patophysiology 2/e. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning, Inc.; 2010.
  24. Rizzo AC, Goldberg TB, Silva CC, Kurokawa CS, Nunes HR, Corrente JE. Metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight, obese, and extremely obese Brazilian adolescents. Nutr J 2013;12(19).
  25. Sebastian RS, Cleveland LE, Goldman JD. Effect of snacking frequency on adolescents’ dietary intakes and meeting national recommendations. J Adolesc Health 2008;42(5):503-11.
  26. Washi SA, Ageib MB. Poor diet quality and food habits are related to impaired nutritional status in 13 to 18 years old adolescent in Jeddah. Nutr Res 2010;30(8):527-34.
  27. Fonseca MJ, Gaio R, Lopes C, Santos AC. Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a sample of Portuguese adults. Nutrition J 2012;11(64).
  28. Camhi SM, Evans EW, Hayman LL, Lichtenstein AH, Must A. Healthy eating index and metabolically healthy obesity in U.S. adolescents and adults. Prev Med 2015;77:23-7



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.22830

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2883 | views : 4831

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (JGKI) Indexed by:
 
 Crossref   Google Scholar Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia OneSearch (IOS)  CORE   

  Creative Commons License

JGKI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free
web stats View My Stats