Efektivitas minuman kombinasi maltodekstrin dan vitamin C terhadap hitung jenis leukosit pada atlet sepak bola

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.19295

Silvi Lailatul Mahfida(1*), Istiti Kandarina(2), Arta Farmawati(3)

(1) Universitas ‘Aisyiyah Yogyakarta
(2) Program Studi S2 Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Bagian Biokimia, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Backgrounds: The immune system changing affects the fitness. Exercise induces the immune responses, oxidative stress and tissue damage that alters leukocyte counts. Maltodextrin supplies higher energy reserves, that can improve the immune system profiles. Vitamin C as an antioxidant against tissue damage.

Objective: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a maltodextrin and vitamin C combination drink on leukocyte differential count after exercise.

Method: This study was quasi-experimental with the within-subject design. Subjects were 14 collegiate football players of the State University of Yogyakarta and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were selected with a purposive sampling. Subjects received a combination of 15% maltodextrin and 250 mg of vitamin C beverage, 300 mL. Subjects did wash out for 6 days, then received placebo beverage (300 mL plain water). Subjects drank 30 minutes before and 5 minutes after physical exercise. Exercise loads were yoyo intermittent test and run gradually until 80 HRmaks. Blood samples were taken immediately and 30 minutes after exercise.

Results: In the administration of intervention beverage, immediately to 30 minutes after exercise neutrophils increased (p=0,006); lymphocytes decreased (p=0.015); monocytes decreased (p=0.000); and eosinophils decreased (p=0.613). In the administration of placebo beverage, immediately to 30 minutes after exercise, neutrophils increased (p=0.359); lymphocytes decreased (p=0.257); monocytes decreased (p=0.146); and eosinophils increased (p=0.549). Neutrophils (p=0.003) and monocyte (p=0.003) had significant difference between both administration drink at 30 minutes after exercise. Lymphocyte and monocyte significantly decrease (p<0.05) at intervention than placebo.

Conclusion: Maltodextrin and vitamin C combination drink effect on the decreasing of lymphocyte and monocyte 30 minutes after exercise.


Keywords


maltodextrin; vitamin C; after exercise; leukocyte differential counts; football athlete

Full Text:

PDF


References

Departemen Kesehatan RI. Gizi atlet sepak bola. Jakarta: Depkes RI; 2002.

Kemenpora. Langkah tim sepak bola Indonesia AYG terganjal di perempat final. [serial online] 2013 [cited 2013 Agustus 20]. Available from: URL: http://kemenpora.go.id/index/ preview/search/8075

Saputra IY. Indonesia U-23 vs Thailand, kalah tipis 0-1, penantian emas timnas berlanjut. [serial online] 2013 [cited 2013 Agustus 20]. Available from: URL: http://www.solopos.com/2013/12/21/sea-games-2013-indonesia-u-23-vs-thailand-kalah-tipis-0-1-penantian-emas-timnas-berlanjut-476372

Herawati M. POMNAS 2013 sepak bola DIY masuk final. [serial online] 2013 [cited 2013 Agustus 20]. Available from: URL: http://www.harianjogja.com/baca/2013/11/28/pomnas-2013-sepak-bola-diy-masuk-final-469432

Deilami A, Sangari M, Shojaeimehr MT.The effect of two intensive aerobic and anaerobic tests on immune system in male athletic students in iran. World Applied Sciences Journal 2013;21(10):1530-9.

Pedersen BK, Hoffman-Goetz L. Exercise and the immune system: regulation, integration, and adaptation. Physiol Rev 2000;80(3):1055-81.

Gunzer W, Konrad M, Pail E. Exercise-induced immunodepression in endurance athletes and nutritional intervention with carbohydrate, protein and fat—what is possible, what is not?. Nutrients 2012;4(9):1187-1212.

Ascensão A, Rebelo A, Oliveira E, Marques F, Pereira L, Magalhães J. Biochemical impact of a soccer match - analysis of oxidative stress and muscle damage markers throughout recovery. Clin Biochem 2008;41(10-11):841-51.

Gurcan N, Erbas D, Ergen E, Bilgehan A, Dundar S, Aricioglu A, Dikmenoglu N. Change in blood haemorheological parameter after submaximal exercise in trained and untrained subjects. Physiol Res 1998;47:23-27.

Nieman DC, Pedersen BK. Nutrition and exercise immunology. Boca raton, Florida: CRC Press LLC; 2000.

Hsu TG, Hsu KM, Kong CW, Lu FJ, Cheng H, Tsai K. Leukocyte mitochondria alterations after aerobic exercise in trained human subjects. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002;34(3):438-42.

Gabriel H, Kindermann W. The acute immune response to exercise: what does it mean?. Int J Sports Med 1997;18 Suppl 1:S28-45.

Alghannam AF. Physiology of soccer: the role of nutrition in performance. J Nov Physiother 2013;S3:003.

Ruffo AM, Osiecki R, Fernandes LC. Moderate to high dose of maltodextrin before exercise improves glycogen availability in soleus and liver after prolonged swimming in rats. J Exerc Physiol online 2009;12(4):30-8.

Leese GP, Bowtell J, Mudambo S. Post-exercise gastric emptying of carbohydrate solutions determined using the 13C acetate breath test. Eur J Appl Physiol 1995;71:306-10.

Khorshidi-Hosseini M, Nakhostin-Roohi B. Effect of glutamine and maltodextrin acute supplementation on anaerobic power. Asian J Sports Med 2013;4(2):131-6.

Wright DA, Sherman WM, Dernbach AR. Carbohydrate feedings before, during, or in combination improve cycling endurance performance. J Appl Physiol 1991;71(3):1082-8.

Greenwood M, Kalman DS, Antonio J. Nutritional supplements in sport and exercise. Humana Press: Totowa, USA; 2008.

Hasanloei F, Dodman MK, Kalantar J. Effect of vitamin C intake following exhaustive aerobic exercise on serum immunoglobulins A and G in karate athletes. International Journal of Sport Studies 2013;3(3):327-33.

Nakhostin-Roohi B, Babaei P, Rahmani-Nia F, Bohlooli S. Effect of vitamin C supplementation on lipid peroxidation, muscle damage and inflammation after 30-min exercise at 75% VO2max. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2008;48(2):217-24.

Fatemeh A, Salesi M, Kushki M. Effect of high intensity training on changes leukocytes subsets in men football player. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences 2014;8(8):1023-7.

Gleeson M, Nieman DC, Pedersen BK. Exercise, nutrition and immune function. J Sports Sci 2004;22(1):115-25.

Fischbach F, Dunning MB. A manual of laboratory and diagnostic tests, 8th edition. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.

Otten JJ, Hellwig JP, Meyers LD. Dietary reference intakes: the essential guide to nutrient requirements. USA: National Academy of Sciences; 2006.

Duzova H, Erdogan H, Fadillioglu E, Emre EH. Effects of maximal anaerobic exercise on neutrophil oxidants/antioxidants in among the sportsmen trained at various levels. Med Science 2012;1(2):77-89.

Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor Lem, Campbell B, Almada AL, Antonio J, et all. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2010;7:7.

Fehrenbach E, Passek F, Niess AM, Pohla H, Weinstock C, Dickhuth HH, Northoff H. HSP expression in human leukocytes is modulated by endurance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32(3):592-600.

Carlson LA, Headley S, DeBruin J, Tuckow AT, Koch AJ, Kenefick RW. Carbohydrate supplementation and immune responses after acute exhaustive resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2008;18(3):247-59.

Quindry JC, Stone WL, King J, Broeder CE. The effects of acute exercise on neutrophils and plasma oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(7):1139-45.

Koch, Alexander J. Immune response to exercise. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity 2013;4(2):92-103.

Abdossaleh Z, Fatemeh A, Frozan K, Amin SM. Leukocytes subsets is differentially affected by exercise Intensity. International Journal of Sport Studies 2014;4(2):246-53.

Paul WE. Fundamental immunology, 7th edition. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.

Scharhag J, Meyer T, Gabriel HH, Auracher M, Kindermann W. Mobilization and oxidative burst of neutrophils are influenced by carbohydrate supplementation during prolonged cycling in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002;87(6):584-7.

Rombaldi AJ, Leite CF, Hartleben CP, Medeiros TH. Effects of carbohydrate supplementation and different types of exercise training on blood cells concentrations. Rev Bras Med Esporte 2013;19(3).

Lancaster GI, Jentjens RL, Moseley L, Jeukendrup AE, Gleeson M. Effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion on plasma cytokine, stress hormone, and neutrophil degranulation responses to continuous, high-intensity exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003;13(4):436-53.

Bishop NC, Walsh N, Scanlon GA. Effect of prolonged exercise and carbohydrate on total neutrophil elastase content. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35(8):1326-32.

Walrand S, Guillet C, Boirie Y, Vasson MP. Insulin differentially regulates monocyte and polymor-phonuclear neutrophil functions in healthy young andelderly humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91(7):2738-48.

PeakeJ, SuzukiK. Neutrophil activation, antioxidant supplements and exercise-induced oxidative stress. Exerc Immunol Rev 2004;10:129-41.

Krause R, Patruta S, Daxböck F, Fladerer P, Biegelmayer C, Wenisch C. Effect of vitamin C on neutrophil function after high-intensity exercise. Eur J Clin Invest 2001;31(3):258-63.

Robson PJ, Bouic PJ, Myburgh KH. Antioxidant supplementation enhances neutrophil oxidative burst in trained runners following prolonged exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003;13(3):369-81.

Gleeson M. Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training. J Nutr 2008;138(10):2045S-2049S.

Tenorio TR, Farah BQ, Ritti-Dias RM, Botero JP, Brito DC, Moura PM, Prado WL. Relation between leukocyte count, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in pubertal adolescents. Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2014;12(4):420-4.

Adamopoulos S, Parissis J, Kroupis C, Georgiadis M, Karatzas D, Karavolias G, Koniavitou K, Coats AJ, Kremastinos DT. Physical training reduces peripheral markers of inflammation in patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 2001;22(9):791-7.

Oman R, McAuley E. Intrinsic motivation and exercise behavior. Journal of Health Education 1993;24(4):232–238.

Henson DA, Nieman DC, Parker JC, Rainwater MK, Butterworth DE, Warren BJ, Utter A, Davis JM, Fagoaga OR, Nehlsen-Cannarella SL. Carbohydrate supplementation and the lymphocyte proliferative response to long endurance running. Int J Sports Med 1998;19:574-580.

Tauler P, Sureda A, Cases N, Aguilo A, Rodriguez-Marroyo JA, Villa G, Tur JA, Antoni P. Increased lymphocyte antioxidant defences in response to exhaustive exercise do not prevent oxidative damage. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 2006;17(10):665-71.

Peake JM. Vitamin C: effects of exercise and requirements with training. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003;13(2):125-51.

Green KJ, Croaker SJ, Rowbottom DG. Carbohydrate supplementation and exercise-induced changes in T-lymphocyte function. J Appl Physiol 2003;95(3):1216-23.

Starkie RL, Angus DJ, Rolland J, Hargreaves M, Febbraio MA. Effect of prolonged, submaximal exercise and carbohydrate ingestion on monocyte intracellular cytokine production in humans. J Physiol 2000;528(Pt 3):647-55.

Gleeson M. Immune function in sport and exercise. J Appl Physiol 2007;103:693-9.

McKune AJ, Smith LL, Semple SJ, Wadee AA. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance exercise. South African Journal of Sports Medicine 2004;16(2):12-6.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.19295

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1281 | views : 1977

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Clinical Nutrition)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (JGKI) Indexed by:
 
 Crossref   Google Scholar Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia OneSearch (IOS)  CORE   

  Creative Commons License

JGKI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free
web stats View My Stats