Pola makan dan konsumsi alkohol sebagai faktor risiko hipertensi pada lansia

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.18219

Nancy Swanida Henriette Malonda(1*), Lucia Kris Dinarti(2), Retno Pangastuti(3)

(1) Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Sam Ratulangi
(2) Bagian Kardiologi dan Kedokteran Vaskuler, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Instalasi Gizi Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Sardjito, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Hypertension is one of the major chronic diseases in the elderly and the prevalence is constantly increasing. The results of Health Research Survey (Riskesdas) in 2007 showed that the prevalence of hypertension in the city of Tomohon was 41.6%. The prevalence of fatty foods consumption in Tomohon was relatively high, amounted to 17.2%. The proportion of alcohol consumer in North Sulawesi province was higher (17.4%) than the National proportion (4.6%), and Tomohon has signifi cantly higher alcohol consumers (36%). The consumption pattern of fatty foods and alcoholic beverages were factors that might increase the risk of hypertension.

Objectives: To identify the infl uence of eating pattern and alcohol consumption as risk factors of hypertension in the elderly at Tomohon Municipality.

Methods: This is an analytic observational study with case control design. Subjects were elderly people aged 60 – 65 years at Tomohon Municipality consisted of 76 cases (hypertensive) and 76 control (non-hypertensive). Data was collected through structured interviews, food frequency questionaire (FFQ ) was used to assess dietary pattern, mental health questionnaire (Self Reporting Questionnaire) was used to determine the condition of stress, waist-hip ratio measurement for obesity status, and blood pressure measurements. Data were analysed by bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results: The result of bivariate analysis showed that fat intake (OR=3.046; 95% CI:1.338 –

6.933; p=0.008), alcohol consumption (OR=2.8; 95% CI:1.418 – 5.299; p=0.003), and obesity (OR=2.4; 95% CI:1.072 – 5.404; p=0.033) signifi cant increase the risk of hypertension. The intake of natrium, potassium and calcium, family history, smoking and stress showed no signifi cant association with hypertension. Statistical analysis revealed that the variables that become dominant risk factors for hypertension and affected the incidence of hypertension were fat (OR=3.303; 95% CI:1.346 – 8.10; p=0.009) and alcohol consumption (OR=2.792; 95% CI:1.347–5.789; p=0.006).

Conclusion: High fat and alcohol consumption were risk factors that affect the incidence of hypertension amongst the elderly at Tomohon Municipality.


Keywords


hypertension; eating pattern; fat; alcohol consumption; elderly

Full Text:

PDF


References

Departemen Kesehatan RI. Pedoman teknis penemuan dan tatalaksana penyakit hipertensi. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan RI; 2006.

Kaplan NM. Clinical hypertension. Sixth edition. Baltimore: Wiliam &Wilkins; 1994.

Handajani YS. Penyakit kronis pada masyarakat lanjut usia dalam hubungan dengan perilakunya di DKI Jakarta. Majalah Kesehatan Perkotaan 2005;12(2):1-8.

Badan Pusat Statistik. Perkembangan beberapa indikator utama sosial ekonomi Indonesia. Jakarta: BPS; 2011.

Dinas Kesehatan dan Kesejahteraan Sosial. Profil kesehatan. Tomohon: Dinkes; 2009.

Departemen Kesehatan RI. Riset kesehatan dasar tahun 2007. Laporan Nasional. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan RI; 2008.

Saraswati S. Diet bagi penderita penyakit hipertensi. Dalam: Diet sehat untuk penyakit asam urat, diabetes, hipertensi, dan stroke. Yogyakarta: A-plus Books; 2009.

Russel ML, Cooper ML, Frone MR, Welte JW. Alcohol drinking patterns and blood pressure. Am J Public Health 1991;81(4):452-7.

Sudarma M. Makanan makna budaya dan kesehatan. Sosiologi untuk kesehatan. Jakarta: Salemba Medika; 2008.

The Seventh Report of The Joint National Committee. Prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Maryland: NIH Publication; 2003.

Madiyono B, Moeslichan S, Sastroasmoro S, Budiman I, Purwanto H. Perkiraan besar sampel. Dalam: Sastroasmoro S, Ismael S. Dasar-dasar metodologi penelitian klinis. Edisi 3. Jakarta: Sagung Seto; 2008.

Sukardji K. Penatalaksanaan gizi mutakhir: diabetes mellitus. Prosiding Temu Ilmiah Kongres XIII PERSAGI dan Festival Gizi; 2005 Nov 20-24; Bali. Jakarta: PERSAGI; 2005.

Puspitorini M. Cara mudah mengatasi darah tinggi. Yogyakarta: Image Press; 2008.

Riyadi A, Wiyono P, Budiningsari RD. Asupan gizi dan status gizi sebagai faktor resiko hipertensi esensial pada lansia di Puskesmas Curup dan Perumnas Kabupaten Rejang Lebong Propinsi Bengkulu. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia 2007;4(1):43–51.

Kandou GD. Makanan etnik Minahasa dan kejadian penyakit jantung koroner. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional 2009;4(1):42-8.

Gurr MI. Fats. In: Garrow. Human nutrition and dietetics. Tenth Edition. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.

Susalit E, Kapojos EJ, Lubis HR. Hipertensi primer. Dalam: Suyono SH. Buku ajar ilmu penyakit dalam. Edisi 3. Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FK UI; 2001.

Ernitasari PD, Djarwoto B, Siswati T. Pola makan, rasio lingkar pinggang pinggul (RLPP) dan tekanan darah di Puskesmas Mergangsan Yogyakarta. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia 2009;6(2):71–7.

Stanley M. Penuaan pada sistem gastrointestinal dengan pertimbangan nutrisi. Dalam: Stanley M, Beare PG. Buku ajar keperawatan gerontik. Ed 2. Juniarty M, Meiliya E. (Alih bahasa). Jakarta: EGC; 2007.

Wang L, Manson JE, Buring JE, Lee IM, Sesso HD. Dietary intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and the risk of hypertension in middle-aged and older women. Hypertension 2008;51(4):1073-9.

Holland BE. Masalah-masalah alkohol pada lansia. Dalam: Stanley M, Beare PG. Buku ajar keperawatan gerontik. Ed 2. Juniarty M, Meiliya E. (Alih bahasa). Jakarta: EGC; 2007.

Padmawinata K. Pengendalian hipertensi. Laporan Komisi Pakar WHO. Bandung: Penerbit ITB; 2001.

Masters SB. Alkohol. Dalam: Katzung BG. Farmakologi dasar dan klinik. Sjabana. (Alih bahasa). Jakarta: Salemba Medika; 2002.

Lee SH, Kim YS, Sunwoo S, Huh BY. A retrospective cohort study on obesity and hypertension risk among Korean adults. J Korean Med Sci 2005;20(2):188-95.

Barlina R, Karouw S, Pasang P. Pengaruh sabut kelapa terhadap kualitas nira aren dan palm wine. Jurnal Litri 2006;12(4):166-71.

Sesso HD, Cook NR, Buring JR, Manson JE, Gaziano JM. Alcohol consumption and the risk of hypertension in women and men. Hypertension 2008;51(4):1080–7.

Nurwijaya H, Ikawati Z. Bahaya alkohol dan cara mencegah kecanduannya. Jakarta: Elex Media Komputindo; 2009.

Joewana S. Gangguan mental dan perilaku akibat penggunaan zat psikoaktif. Jakarta: EGC; 2005.

Widyastuti N, Subagio HW. Hubungan beberapa indikator obesitas dengan hipertensi pada perempuan. Media Medika Indonesiana 2006;41(1):10–6.

Khan J. Obesity and blood pressure of female Malaysian students, utilizing the newly proposed classification of body mass index for Asians. International Medical Journal 2008;15(2):153-6.

Martini S, Hendrati LY Usia merokok pertama kali merupakan faktor yang meningkatkan risiko kejadian hipertensi: besar risiko kejadian hipertensi menurut pola merokok. Jurnal Kedokteran Yarsi 2006;14(3):191-8.

Sparrenberger F, Fuchs SC, Moreira LB, Fuchs FD. Stressful life events and current psychological distress are associated with self reported hypertension but not with true hypertension: results from a cross­ sectional population-based study. BMC Public Health 2008;8:357.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.18219

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 8644 | views : 10573

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Clinical Nutrition)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (JGKI) Indexed by:
 
 Crossref   Google Scholar Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia OneSearch (IOS)  CORE   

  Creative Commons License

JGKI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free
web stats View My Stats