Pengendalian Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) dan Nitrit Oxide(NO) pada penderita DMT2 dengan emping garut (Maranta arundinacea Linn) sebagai makanan selingan

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.18207

Betty Prastuti(1*), Sunarti Sunarti(2)

(1) Progam Studi Ilmu Gizi Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Respati Yogyakarta
(2) Bagian Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadajah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus increases the production of superoxide that cause oxidative stress and decrease the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). SOD enzyme reduces superoxide to hydrogen peroxide to lessen the reaction between superoxide and nitric oxide (NO). To reduce hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus, diabetics are encouraged to consume diet with low glycemic index. Arrowroot chips is a product commonly used by the community as a snack. Arrowroot has low glycemic index (glycemic index = 14) so it can be used as an alternative snack for diabetics.

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the beneficial effects of arrowroot chips to help controlling the blood glucose level, SOD activity and NO concentration in type 2 diabetes.
Method: This is a quasi-experimental research with a one group pre test - post test. Subjects were 14 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who regularly visited endocrine polyclinic of RSUP.Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta. The inclusion criteria were: aged 35-60 years, had suffered from diabetes mellitus for at least one year and currently on insulin injection therapy. The subjects were given 20 grams/day arrowroot chips to be consumed as a snack for four weeks. The blood samples were drawn before and after treatment. Glucose level were analyzed by GOD-PAP method, SOD activity was determined by Ransod kits and NO concentration was analyzed by colorimetric Gies reagent system. Finally, data were analyzed by paired t-test and correlation regression test.

Result: There was an increased glucose level from 124,43 ± 33,56 to 139,00 ± 67,96 mg/dl after treatment (p=0,551), SOD activity decreased from 77,09 + 19,33 to 43,99 + 17,45 unit/ml whole blood after treatment (p=0,000), decreased NO concentration from 1,28 + 1,32 to 1,15 + 0,577 µM after treatment (p=0,875), and a positive correlation between SOD activity and NO concentration (p=0,151; r=0,405; R2=0,164).

Conclusion: Arrowroot chips consumption as a snack for 4 weeks was unable to help controlling the fasting plasma glucose level, SOD activity and NO concentration in type 2 diabetics.

Keywords


hyperglycemia; arrowroot chips; fasting plasma glucose; SOD; NO; DM

Full Text:

PDF


References

PERKENI. Konsensus pengelolaan 1. dan pencegahan diabetes mellitus tipe 2 di Indonesia 2006. Jakarta: Pengurus Besar Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia (PB.PERKENI); 2006.

Guyton AC, Hall JE. Buku ajar fisiologi kedokteran edisi 11. Irawati (Alih bahasa). Jakarta: EGC; 2006.

Suastika K. Peranan hiperglikemia dalam terjadinya komplikasi kronik diabetes melitus. Majalah Kedokteran Udayana 2000;31(110):182-8.

Roberston RP, Harmon J, Tran PO, Tanaka Y, Takahashi H. Glucose toxicity in β-cell: type 2 diabetes, good radical gone bad, and the glutathione connection. Diabetes 2003;52:581-7.

Mahfouz MH, Emara IA, Shouman MS, Ezz MK. Asymetrical dimethylaginine (ADMA) and nitric oxide as potential cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Afr J Biochem Res 2009;3(8):293-301.

Brownlee M. Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications. Nature 2001;414(6865):813-20.

Schiffrin EL. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide synthase, and superoxide dismutase a matter of imbalance underlies endhthelial dysfunction in the human coronary circulation. Hypertension 2008;51:31-3.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2008. Diabetes Care 2008;31(Suppl 1):S12-54.

Beckman JA, Creager MA, Libby P. Diabetes and atherosclerosis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. JAMA 2002;287(19):2570-81.

Radulian G, Rusu E, Dragomir A, Posea M. Metabolic effects of low glycaemic index diets. J Nutr 2009;8:5.

Marsono Y, Wiyono P, Utomo Z. Indeks glikemik garut (Maranta arundinace L ) dan uji sifat fungsionalnya pada model hewan coba. Jakarta: Kementrian Ristek: Laporan akhir penelitian rusnas diversifikasi pangan pokok; 2005.

POK LIMBI. Emping garut makanan sehat masa depan. Yogyakarta: Pusat Studi Pangan Dan Gizi Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2008.

Sastroasmoro S, Ismael S. Dasar-dasar metodologi penelitian klinis. Jakarta: Bina Rupa Aksara; 2008.

Jenkins DA, Wolever TMS, Buckley G, Lam KY, Giudici S, Kalmusky J, Jenkins AL, RL Patten, Bird J,Wong GS. Low-glycemic-index starchy foods in the diabetic diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48(2):248-54.

Magnusson I, Rothman DL, Katz L, Shulman RG, Shulman GI. Increased rate of gluconeogenesis in type II diabetes mellitus. A 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study. J Clin Invest 1992;90(4):1323-7.

Suryawanshi NP, Bhuthey AK, Nagdeote AN, Jadhav AA, Manoorkar GS. Study of lipid peroxide and lipid profile in diabetes mellitus. Indian J Clin Biochem 2006;21(1):126-30.

Katz DL. Nutrition in clinical practice. Conecticut: Lippinncot Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

DeBruyne LK, Pinna K, Whitney E. Nutrition and diet therapy, principle and practice. USA: Wadsworth; 2008.

Almatsier S. Prinsip dasar ilmu gizi. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama; 2002.

Murray RK, Ganner DK, Rodwell VW. Biokimia Harper. Pendit BU (Alih bahasa). Jakarta: EGC; 2009.

Winarsi H. Antioksidan alami dan radikal bebas. Yogyakarta: Kanisius; 2007.

Nishimura CY. Aldose reduktase in glucose toxicity: a potential target for the prevention of diabetic complications. Pharmacol Rev 1998;50(1):21-34.

Fang YZ, Yang S, Wu G. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition 2002;18(10):872-9.

Pengendalian Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) dan Nitrit Oxide (NO) pada penderita DMT2 dengan emping garut sebagai makanan selingan 125 Norata GD, Catpano AL. 24. Molecular mechanism responsible for the antiinflamatori and protective effect of HDL on the endothelium. Milano, Italy: Department of Pharmacological Sciene; 2005.

Chikani G, Zhu W, Smart EJ. Lipids: potential regulators of nitric oxide generation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2004;287(3):E386-9.

Bresson JL, Flynn A, Heinonen M, Hulshof K. Dietary reference values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Draft Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission related to dietary reference values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. EFSA Journal 2009;xxx:1-76.

Muzakar, Dinarti K, Astuti H. Asupan vitamin B3 (niasin), vitamin C, E, dan serat berhubungan dengan dyslipidemia pada penyakit jantung koroner di RS DR. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia 2010;6(3):114-22.

Sydow K, Munzel T. ADMA and oxidative stress. Atheroscler Suppl 2003;4(4):41-51.

Bagi Z, Toth E, Koller A, Kaley G. Microvascular dysfunction after transient high glucose is caused by superoxide-dependent reduction in the bioavailability of NO and BH4. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2004;287(2):H626-33.

Hayden MR, Tyagi SC. Uric acid: a new look at an old risk marker for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the urate redox shuttle. Nutr Metab 2004;1(1):10.

Singh R, Barden A, Mori T, Beilin L. Advanced glycation end-products: a review. Diabetologia 2001;44(2):129-46.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.18207

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 378 | views : 990

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Clinical Nutrition)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (JGKI) Indexed by:
 
 Crossref   Google Scholar Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia OneSearch (IOS)  CORE   

  Creative Commons License

JGKI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free
web stats View My Stats