Usia penyapihan dan hubungannya dengan intelegensi pada siswa TK

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.17512

Hesti Purwandari(1*), Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono(2), Sri Hartati(3)

(1) Jl. Godean km 5 RT 07/RW 03, Guyangan, Nogotirto, Gamping, Sleman, Yogyakarta
(2) Bagian Anak RSUP Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta/Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Bagian Gizi Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi DIY
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Nutrition is the important aspect in improving quality of human being resources. Malnutrition is still a problem in Indonesia. This problem is caused by some factors, those are direct and indirect factors. Direct factors consist of dietary intake and infection disease. Dietary intake is a combination of breast milk and complementary foods. Indirect factors consist of food supply at home, treatment of pregnant mother and children, and health service. Early weaning will generate malnutrition at young age if it is not complemented with sufficient feeding. Malnutrition at young age can affect brain function permanently, because the development of brain will be optimum before two years old. This condition can influence the development of chidren’s intelligence.

Objective: The objective of the study was to find out the relationship between weaning age and intelligence.

Method: This was a cross sectional study, at kindergarten in Mlati Sub-district. Subjects were recruited based on a simple random sampling technique. There were 194 children and mothers who met the inclusion criteria and the exclusion criteria. Those were who had chronic disease and never got breastfeeding. Instruments in this study were questionnaire, microtoise, and Standford-Binet test. Data were analysed with chi square test.

Results: The study showed that 52.6% of children had the age of weaning <2 years and 47.4% had weaning at >2 years. Out of 194 children, 79.9% were normal and 20.1% of them were stunted. There were 97.7% of children who had good intelligence, whereas 2.1% of them had low intelligence. There was no significant relationship between nutritional status and intelligence (p=0.181), but there was significant relationship between cognitive stimulation and intelligence (p=0.037). There was no significant relationship between weaning age and nutritional status (p=0.209), and neither was relationship between weaning age and intelligence (p=1.000).

Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between nutritional status and intelligence.


Keywords


weaning age; nutritional status; intelligence; kindergaten student

Full Text:

PDF


References

Suswati I. Kiat Menciptakan Anak Sehat dan Cerdas. Saintika Medika Jurnal Kesehatan dan Kedokteran Keluarga 2005;2(1):109-19.

Badan Statistik Kabupaten. Profil Kesehatan Kabupaten Sleman. Yogyakarta: Kantor Statistik Kabupaten/Kota; 2004.

Jahari AB, Abunain D, Tarwotjo Ig. Masalah Kurang Kalori Protein Gizi Indonesia. Gizi Indonesia 1988;XIII(1):49-58.

Hidayat TS, Sumartono N, Latinulu S, Enoch M. Aspek Sosial dan Pola Penyapihan Anak Batita pada Masyarakat Kota: Studi Kasus di Kelurahan Ciwaringin, Kotamadya Bogor. Dalam: Karyadi D, Susanto J, Siagian UL, editor. Prosiding Simposium Pangan dan Gizi, Kesadaran Gizi Nasional dalam Rangka Peningkatan Kualitas Sumberdaya Manusia, Pergizi-pangan Indonesia. Jawa Barat: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Gizi; 1990.

Setyowati T, Budiarso R. Pemberian Air Susu Ibu (ASI) dan Pemberian Minuman/Makanan pada Bayi. Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan 1999;26(4):153-9.

Utsman SN. Merawat dan Mendidik Anak. Surabaya: Pustaka Hikmah Perdana; 2005.

Mahan K, Stump SE. Krause’s Food Nutrition & Diet Therapy. 11th ed. USA: Elseiver; 2004.

Handryastuti S. Peranan Nutrisi dalam Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangan Otak. Gizi Medik Indonesia 2004;3(10):4-8.

Ceci S. Intelligence: The Surprising Truth. In: Duffy KG, editor. Annual Edition: Psychology. 33rd ed. Connecticut: Mc. Graw-Hill/Dushkin; 2003.

Shaffer DR. Development Psychology Childhood an Adolescence. 2nd ed. Pasific Groove, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; 1988.

Thaha AR. Faktor-Faktor Determinan Pertumbuhan. Jurnal Medika Nusantara 2000;21(2):123-7.

Kasdu D. Anak Cerdas. Jakarta: Puspa Swara; 2004.

Lazuardi S. Deteksi Dini Disfungsi Minimal Otak pada Balita. Jurnal Rehabilitasi dan Remediasi 1992;1(1):21-32.

Hadju V. Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Malnutrisi Kronik pada Baduta di Sulawesi Selatan. Jurnal Medika Nusantara 2000;21(2):78-83.

Sastroasmoro S, Ismael S. Dasar-dasar Metodologi Penelitian Klinis. Jakarta: Bagian Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia;1995.

Petrus. Status Gizi, Intelegensi, dan Prestasi Belajar Murid SD Suku Bajau di Kecamatan Tinanggea Kabupaten Kendari [tesis]. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2003.

Dhini. Perbedaan Inteligensi dan Prestasi Belajar Anak Stunted dan Non-Stunted di Kecamatan Bukit Batu Kota Palangkaraya [tesis]. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2003.

Andarwati R. Hubungan antara Berat Badan Lahir, Eksklusif, Status Gizi dan Stimulasi Kognitif dengan Kecerdasan Anak Usia 5-6 Tahun di Kecamatan Prambanan Kabupaten Sleman. Jurnal Gizi Klinik In- donesia 2006;2(3):95-100.

Kartika V, Latinulu S. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kemampuan Motorik Anak Usia 12-18 Bulan di Keluarga Miskin dan Tidak Miskin. Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan 2002; 25(2):31-7.

Hendriani, Irawan PW, Kusumadi A, Moedrik, I Hartantyo, Hapsari, Ag Soemantri. Hubungan Perkembangan Kognitif dengan Kadar Hemoglobin dan Status Gizi Anak Usia Sekolah Dasar di Daerah Endemis Malaria. Majalah Kedokteran Indonesia 2005;55(8):525-31.

Muljati S, Heryudarini, Sandjaja, Irawati A, Sudjasmin. Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Perkembangan Mental dan Psikomotor pada Anak Batita Gizi Kurang. Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan 2002;25(2):31-7.

Mendez M, Adair LS. Severity and Timing of Stunting in The First Two Years of Live Affect Performance on Cognitive Test in Late Childhood. J Nutr 1999;129:1555-62.

Rahayu NS. Hubungan antara Umur Penyapihan dengan Status Gizi Batita di Bangunharjo Sewon Bantul [skripsi]. Yogyakarta: Universitas Gadjah Mada; 1997.

Albar H. Makanan Pendamping ASI. Cermin Dunia Kedokteran 2004;145:52-4. Schroeder DG. Malnutrition. In: Semba RD, Bloem MW. Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries. Totowa: Human Press; 2000.

Susilowati D, Karyadi D. Malnutrition and Poverty Alle- viation. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr Soc 2002; 11: 323-330 27. Onis M. Malnutrition. In: Semba RD, Bloem MW, editors. Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries. Totowa: Human Press; 2000.

Irnawati. Hubungan antara Umur Penyapihan dengan Status Gizi Batita di Desa Minomartani Kecamatan Ngaglik Kabupaten Sleman [skripsi]. Yogyakarta: Uni- versitas Gadjah Mada; 2001.

Slykerman R, Thompson JM, Becroft DM, Robinson E, Pryor JE, Clark PM, et al. Breastfeeding and Intelligence of Preschool Children. Acta Paediatr 2005;94(7):832-7.

Quinn PJ, O’callaghan M, Williams GM, Najman JM, Andersen MJ, Bor W. The Effect of Breastfeeding on Child Development at 5 Years: A Cohort Study. J Paediatr Child Health 2001;37:465-9.

Daniels MC, Adair LS. Breasfeeding Influences Cognitive Development in Filipino Children. J Nutr 2005;135:2587-95

Gustafsson PA, Duchen K, Birberg U, 31. Karlsson T. Breastfeeding, Very Long Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) and IQ at 6 ½ Years of Age. Acta Paediatr 2004;93:1280-7



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijcn.17512

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 675 | views : 340

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Clinical Nutrition)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia (JGKI) Indexed by:
 
 Crossref   Google Scholar Indonesian Scientific Journal Database (ISJD) Indonesia OneSearch (IOS)  CORE   

  Creative Commons License

JGKI is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

free
web stats View My Stats